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Classical Genetics. Gregor Mendel: Father of Genetics . Law of Segregation: alleles separate during the formation of sex cells. Sex cells contain only one member of the pair of alleles. If genes are located on separate chromosomes, they are inherited independently of each other.

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Law of Segregation: alleles separate during the formation of sex cells. Sex cells contain only one member of the pair of alleles


If genes are located on separate chromosomes they are inherited independently of each other
If genes are located on separate chromosomes, they are inherited independently of each other


Law of Dominance: when an organism carries alleles for two contrasting traits, only the dominant trait is shown


How could one determine whether an individual is homozygous dominant AA or heterozygous dominant Aa?

Answer:

Perform a Test Cross

This is done by crossing it with an individual that is homozygous recessive for the same trait, then looking at the offspring


Mendalien genetics
MendAlien Genetics dominant AA or heterozygous dominant Aa?

  • http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/inheritance/genxfile.html

  • Try some crosses and see each concept we covered explained.


Incomplete dominance
Incomplete Dominance dominant AA or heterozygous dominant Aa?


Incomplete dominance1
Incomplete Dominance dominant AA or heterozygous dominant Aa?

When two alleles are equally dominant, they interact to produce a new phenotype that is an intermediate between the two alleles.

Example:

RED SNAPDRAGON X WHITE SNAPDRAGON → PINK SNAPDRAGON


Incomplete dominance2
Incomplete Dominance dominant AA or heterozygous dominant Aa?

  • A capital letter represents one incomplete dominance allele

  • A different capital letter represents the other incomplete dominant allele


Incomplete dominance3
Incomplete Dominance dominant AA or heterozygous dominant Aa?


Incomplete dominance4
Incomplete Dominance dominant AA or heterozygous dominant Aa?


Note: Nelson Textbook uses: dominant AA or heterozygous dominant Aa?

CR CR= red

CW CW =white

CR CW=pink

See Figure 1 on page 144


Incomplete dominance5
Incomplete Dominance dominant AA or heterozygous dominant Aa?

  • In humans, curly hair (HH) is incompletely dominant to straight hair (H’H’).  The heterozygous individual has wavy hair (HH’).


Codominance
Codominance dominant AA or heterozygous dominant Aa?

  • In codominance, both alleles are expressed independently and are uniquely recognizable.

  • Example:

  • Red flower X white flower→ red and white spotted flowers


Codominance1
Codominance dominant AA or heterozygous dominant Aa?


Codominance2
Codominance dominant AA or heterozygous dominant Aa?

  • A capital letter represents one of the codominant alleles

  • A different letter represents the other codominant allele

    Note: Nelson Textbook uses:

  • CR CR= red

  • CW CW =white

  • CR =red and white spots

  • See Figure 2 on page 145

·   


Codominance3
Codominance dominant AA or heterozygous dominant Aa?


This roan horse is heterozygous for coat color. Its fur appears grey because it has a mixture of black and white hairs, not because the individual hair colors are grey.


Roan cow
Roan Cow appears grey because it has a mixture of black and white hairs, not because the individual hair colors are grey.


In horses, gray horses (GG) are codominant to white horses (WW).  The heterozygous horses(GW) is an appaloosa horse (a white horse with gray spots on the rump and loins).


Codominance tabby pattern
Codominance: Tabby Pattern (WW).  The heterozygous horses(GW) is an appaloosa horse (a white horse with gray spots on the rump and loins).


Dihybrid crosses
Dihybrid Crosses (WW).  The heterozygous horses(GW) is an appaloosa horse (a white horse with gray spots on the rump and loins).

  • Mendel also studied the inheritance of two separate traits in crossbreeding following the same procedures he had used for studying single traits.

  • Dihybrid Cross: a type of cross that involves two genes, each consisting of non-identical alleles.


Dihybrid cross
Dihybrid Cross (WW).  The heterozygous horses(GW) is an appaloosa horse (a white horse with gray spots on the rump and loins).

  • Mendel proposed that alleles of different genes are assorted independently of one another during the formation of gametes.

  • This proved to be true.

  • This is called the Law of Independent Assortment


Dihybrid cross punnett square
Dihybrid Cross Punnett Square (WW).  The heterozygous horses(GW) is an appaloosa horse (a white horse with gray spots on the rump and loins).

  • in a dihybrid cross question, all 4 possible gametes for one parent are placed along the top of the Punnett Square and all 4 gametes for the other parent are placed along the side.

  • Example: Heterozygous round, yellow pea plants RrYy:

  • 4 gametes for RrYy are:

  • RY, Ry, rY, ry


Rryy x rryy
RrYy x RrYy (WW).  The heterozygous horses(GW) is an appaloosa horse (a white horse with gray spots on the rump and loins).


P Generation = RRYY x rryy (WW).  The heterozygous horses(GW) is an appaloosa horse (a white horse with gray spots on the rump and loins).

F 1 Generation =RrYy

F 2 Generation = 9/16 yellow, round

3/16 yellow wrinkled

3/16 green, round

1/16 green wrinkled


9 3 3 1 phenotype ratio
9:3:3:1 Phenotype Ratio (WW).  The heterozygous horses(GW) is an appaloosa horse (a white horse with gray spots on the rump and loins).

  • A phenotype ratio of 9:3:3:1 occurs in the offspring of a mating of two organisms heterozygous for two traits.


Eye colour dihybrid cross bbgg x bbgg
Eye Colour: Dihybrid Cross (WW).  The heterozygous horses(GW) is an appaloosa horse (a white horse with gray spots on the rump and loins).BbGg x BbGg


F y i eye colour details
F.Y.I. Eye Colour Details (WW).  The heterozygous horses(GW) is an appaloosa horse (a white horse with gray spots on the rump and loins).

  • At one locus (site=gene) there are two different alleles segregating: the B allele confers brown eye color and the recessive b allele gives rise to blue eye color. At the other locus (gene) there are also two alleles: G for green or hazel eyes and g for lighter colored eyes.The B allele will always make brown eyes regardless of what allele is present at the other locus. In other words, B is dominant over G. In order to have true blue eyes your genotype must be bbgg. If you are homozygous for the B alleles, your eyes will be darker than if you are heterozygous and if you are homozygous for the G allele, in the absence of B, then your eyes will be darker (more hazel) that if you have one one G allele.


Sex linked traits
Sex-Linked Traits (WW).  The heterozygous horses(GW) is an appaloosa horse (a white horse with gray spots on the rump and loins).


Sex linked traits1
Sex-Linked Traits (WW).  The heterozygous horses(GW) is an appaloosa horse (a white horse with gray spots on the rump and loins).

  • Sex-linked genes are located on one of the sex chromosomes (X or Y) but not the other.

  • Since, typically the X chromosome is longer, it bears a lot of genes not found on the Y chromosome, thus most sex-linked genes are X-linked genes.


Morgan s experiments
Morgan’s Experiments (WW).  The heterozygous horses(GW) is an appaloosa horse (a white horse with gray spots on the rump and loins).

  • In 1910, Thomas Hunt Morgan discovered that eye colour in fruit flies was sex-linked.

  • Morgan's results is due to the fact that the gene for eye colour in Drosophila is located on the X chromosome.

  • White eye colour is predominantly found in male flies.


Sex linked traits2
Sex-Linked Traits (WW).  The heterozygous horses(GW) is an appaloosa horse (a white horse with gray spots on the rump and loins).

  • Morgan’s work on sex-linkage in fruit flies has been called one of the most important events in genetics.

  • His work with Drosophila proved true the theory that Mendel's "traits" are found on chromosomes.


Why are recessive sex linked traits found more often in males
Why are recessive sex-linked traits found more often in males?

  • Since females have two copies of the X chromosome, a female must inherit two defective genes.

  • Since a male has only one X chromosome, if it is defective, he will have the disorder. XcY

  • A female who appears normal but has one defective chromosome is called a carrier. XCXc


Carriers
Carriers males?

  • X-linked traits are maternally inherited from carrier mothers. Each son born to a carrier mother has a 50% probability of inheriting the X-chromosome carrying the mutant allele.

  • There are a few Y-linked traits; these are inherited from the father.


Sex linked disorders
Sex-Linked Disorders males?

  • hemophilia

  • red-green color blindness

  • congenital night blindness

  • some high blood pressure conditions

  • duchene muscular dystrophy




Normal colour vision should read the number 74. males?Red-Green colour deficiencies should read the number 21.Total colour blindness should not be able to read any numeral.


Those with normal colour vision should read the number 8. Those with red-green colour vision deficiencies should read the number 3. Total colour blindness should not be able to read any numeral.


Normal vision should read the number 29. Those with red-green colour vision deficiencies should read the number 3. Total colour blindness should not be able to read any numeral.Red-green deficiencies should read the number 70.Total colour blindness should not read any numeral


N Those with red-green colour vision deficiencies should read the number 3. Total colour blindness should not be able to read any numeral.ormal colour vision should read the number 5.Red-Green colour deficiencies should read the number 2.Total colour blindness should not be able to read any numeral.


Mendalien genetics1
MendAlien Genetics Those with red-green colour vision deficiencies should read the number 3. Total colour blindness should not be able to read any numeral.

  • http://www.whsd.k12.pa.us/courses/H0058/Interactive_Study_Partner/activity/ch15/a02/s01/fr150201.htmhttp://www.whsd.k12.pa.us/courses/H0058/Interactive_Study_Partner/activity/ch15/a02/s01/fr150201.htm


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