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Carlos R. Villa National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. Tesla Tales. NHMFL Overview. One Of Three National Labs In The Southeast U.S. One Of Nine High Magnetic Field Labs In The World Only One In Western Hemisphere Largest And Highest Powered In The World. NHMFL Overview. User Laboratory

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Tesla Tales

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Carlos r villa national high magnetic field laboratory

Carlos R. Villa

National High Magnetic Field Laboratory

Tesla Tales

Nhmfl overview

NHMFL Overview

  • One Of Three National Labs In The Southeast U.S.

  • One Of Nine High Magnetic Field Labs In The World

    • Only One In Western Hemisphere

    • Largest And Highest Powered In The World

Nhmfl overview1

NHMFL Overview

  • User Laboratory

    • Close to 1000 User Visits in 2010

    • NSF Funded

    • Research Free To Scientist

  • Research In Many Fields (Not Just Magnets!!)

    • Biology, Chemistry, Biomedical, Geology, Engineering, Geochemistry, Materials Science, Physics, Microscopy…

Center for integrating research learning

Center for Integrating Research & Learning

  • Educational component of NHMFL’s grant

  • K-12 education outreach

    • 10,961 students visited this school year

  • Professional development

  • Workshops and conferences


Ret 2010

RET 2010

  • RET program

    • 6 weeks in the summer

    • $3600 stipend

    • REU also available

Magnet review

Magnet Review

  • Gauss

    • Measurement Of Magnetic Field

    • Named For Carl Friedrich Gauss

  • Tesla

    • Measurement Of Larger Magnetic Fields

    • Named For Nikola Tesla

    • 10,000 Gauss = 1 Tesla

Tesla tales

Tesla Tales

  • Magnetism

    • Ferromagnetic, paramagnetic, diamagnetic

  • 1820 Revolution

    • Oersted & Ampere

  • Faraday’s laws of induction

  • Lenz’s Law

  • Free electron theory of conduction

  • BCS theory of superconductivity



  • Motion of electrons create magnetic fields

  • In some atoms, spins cancel out

    • Pauli exclusion

  • Whenever all electrons spin the same direction: magnetic field is produced

  • Magnetic domains

    • In magnets: lined up

Ferromagnetism permanent magnets

Ferromagnetism: Permanent Magnets

  • Electrons tend to line up in groups (Domains)

  • Domains reinforce other domains

    • Turn material magnetic

      • Examples: Refrigerator Magnets, Bar Magnets, Magnetite, Horseshoe Magnets, Hematite, etc…

  • Field can be lost

    • Curie Point

    • Electric Current

      • Degaussing

    • Bang It

Ferromagnetism temporary magnets

Ferromagnetism: Temporary Magnets

  • Domains temporarily aligned

  • Will keep magnetic field until tampered

    • Examples:

      • Paperclips, scissors, staples, thumb tacks, pins, screwdrivers, refrigerator door, car doors, etc…

      • Anything that is magnetic, but will not keep its field

Paramagnetism temporary magnets

Paramagnetism: Temporary Magnets

  • No force aligning domains

    • Randomly distributed

  • Domains temporarily aligned by strong field

  • Will lose magnetic field when original field is removed

    • Examples: Plastics, aluminum can, copper wire, gold jewelry, tungsten, etc…

Diamagnetism the anti magnets

Diamagnetism: The Anti-Magnets

  • Domains temporarily aligned by strong field

    • Will align in order to oppose original field

  • Faraday’s second law of induction

    • When a material whose atoms do not normally have a magnetic field is placed in a strong field, their electrons will adjust in such a way as to create their own magnetic field opposing the external one.

Ferromagnetism lab magnetic fields

Ferromagnetism Lab: Magnetic Fields

  • Magnets attract and repel

  • Seeing fields

    • Bar magnet

    • As many compasses as possible

Ferromagnetism lab temporary magnets

Ferromagnetism Lab: Temporary Magnets

  • Paper clips

    • Argument driven inquiry

    • How long will temporary magnets hold?

      • 18 months!

    • Do they have poles?

      • They attract and repel!

    • Can they be unmagnetized?

      • Yes, but they can also hold fields!

Ferromagnetism lab compass creation

Ferromagnetism Lab: Compass Creation

  • Magnetize An Item

  • Allow It To Float

    • Must Turn Freely

      • Needle

      • Petri Dish

      • Coffee Stirrer

      • Water

      • Permanent Magnet

Diamagnetism lab

Diamagnetism Lab

  • Superconductors are diamagnetic

    • YBCO or BSSCO works well

      • Kit available from Colorado Superconductor Inc.

1820 oersted discovery

1820: Oersted Discovery

  • An electrical current can create a magnetic field

  • Oersted set up lecture demonstration

    • Used battery to supply current

    • Showed compass needle deflecting near the wire

Oersted lab

Oersted Lab

  • Deflect a compass needle

    • Battery

    • Aluminum foil

    • Compass

    • Wire

    • Assorted other items

  • Place the compass:

    • Above the wire

    • Below the wire

1820 ampere s law

1820: Ampere’s Law

  • Moving electrical charges produce magnetic fields

  • Simple experiment

    • Two straight wires

    • Current passed through

    • Wires bowed toward or away

  • Led to electromagnets

Ampere lab

Ampere Lab

  • Materials

    • Copper wire

    • Iron rod (or nail)

    • Battery

  • Extensions:

    • 2 batteries

      • In line?

    • Aluminum, wooden rod

      • Will they work?

Ampere lab part ii

Ampere Lab: Part II

  • Right hand rule

    • Direction of field (Biot-Savart Law)

  • Poles (Winding direction)

    • Use compass

  • Variables:

    • Neatness

    • Number of winds

    • Wire gauge

    • Battery strength

1831 faraday s laws

1831: Faraday’s Laws

  • A change in magnetic field produces an electric current

    • Induction

  • Magnetic flux: The change needed to induce current

Faraday lab

Faraday Lab

  • Use copper wire to attach LED lights on a plastic pipe.

  • Drop NIB magnet through pipe (and through copper wires)

  • Induction of electricity

1835 lenz s law

1835: Lenz’s Law

  • An induced current in a wire (by flux) will flow to create a field that opposes the flux

  • Eddy currents created

  • Used in magnetic braking systems

    • Rollercoasters

Lenz lab

Lenz Lab

  • Changing Magnetic Flux Produces An Induced Electric Field

  • Copper Tube, NIB Magnet

  • Eddy Currents

1900 free electron theory

1900: Free Electron Theory

  • Electrical conduction in a solid is caused by the bulk motion of electrons

    • Each metal atom contributes an electron that is free to roam

    • Voltage briefly accelerates the electrons

      • Resistance

Free electron theory lab

Free Electron Theory Lab

  • Current electricity

    • Electrons flow through a wire

      • Slow movement

    • Circuit needed

  • Complete circuits using Alien Ball

  • Turn on the light bulb

    • Turn on two light bulbs

    • Create more advanced circuits

      • Parallel & series

1957 bcs theory

1957: BCS Theory

  • BCS: Bardeen, Cooper, Schreiffer

  • At low temperatures, some metals lose resistance

    • Atoms nearly stationary

  • Superconductivity results from the formation of Cooper pairs (Two electrons acting as a single particle)

    • Flow along single intertwined mass

  • Results in rapid flow of electrons

Bcs lab


  • Repeat Ampere lab

  • Measure resistance with digital multimeter at each step

    • Raise temperature with hot water

    • Lower temperature with ice water

    • Lower temperature with liquid nitrogen*

      * Always adhere to safety guidelines

Additional resources

Additional Resources

Stop Faking It: Electricity & Magnetism

Bill Robertson

Driving Force: The Natural Magic of Magnets

James D. Livingston

Additional resources1

Additional Resources

A Short History of Nearly Everything

Bill Bryson

The Nature of Science

James Trefil

Additional resources2

Additional Resources

Hidden Attraction: The Mystery & History of Magnetism

Gerrit L. Verschuur

The Cold Wars: A History of Superconductivity

Jean Matricon & Georges Waysand

Additional resources3

Additional Resources

  • http://education.magnet.fsu.edu

    • MagLabAlpha; Science, Optics, & You; other curriculum

    • MagLab audio slideshows

  • RET Program

  • K-12 Programs

Before i forget

Before I Forget

  • Business Cards

    • Please Do Not Hesitate To Contact Me With Questions, Ideas, Suggestions…

Carlos r villa national high magnetic field laboratory villa@magnet fsu edu 850 644 7191

Carlos R. Villa

National High Magnetic Field Laboratory

villa@magnet.fsu.edu • 850-644-7191

Thank You

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