Temperature, Pressure, and Radiation in Reference Missions
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Temperature, Pressure, and Radiation in Reference Missions. Pressure vs. Temperature. Radiation vs. Temperature. Pressure ( bars). Radiation( MRad). 1000. 10. Europa Surface and Subsurface. Jupiter Probes. 100. 10. 1.0. Venus Surface Exploration. Titan In-Situ. Earth. 1.0.

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Temperature, Pressure, and Radiation in Reference Missions

Pressure vs. Temperature

Radiation vs. Temperature

Pressure ( bars)

Radiation( MRad)

1000

10

Europa Surface

and Subsurface

Jupiter

Probes

100

10

1.0

Venus Surface

Exploration

Titan In-Situ

Earth

1.0

0.1

0.1

Jupiter

Probes

Europa Surface

and Subsurface

Venus Surface

Exploration

Titan

In-Situ

0.01

CNSR

Earth

CNSR

- 250

250

- 250

250

500

500

0

0

Temperature ( C)

Temperature ( C)


Summary of Reference Mission Technology Needs

Challenge: All reference missions have to survive and operate in extreme temperature, pressure, and radiation environments.


Venus Dynamics Explorer

Objective: Obtain Measurements to explain the general circulation of the Venus atmosphere

  • The cloud-level atmosphere (~70 km) rotates about 60 times faster than the planet’s slowly-rotating surface (4 days vs 242 day period)

    • The mechanisms responsible for this superrotation have evaded theoretical explanation for >30 years


Venus Dynamics Explorer

Approach: Long-lived balloons and Orbiter

  • Network of 12 to 24 long-lived balloons

    • Deployed between the surface and cloud tops at 3-4 latitudes (equatorial, mid, high)

    • Time resolved measurements over ~1 week

      • Discriminates eddies from mean flow

    • VLBI tracking, p, T, solar/thermal radiation

  • Orbiter

    • Required for communications/ tracking

    • UV and Near IR imaging spectrometers for tracking the upper, middle, and lower clouds S- and/or X-band radio science package to retrieve density profile at 34 km and 100 km


80

70

60

Altitude (km)

50

40

30

20

10

0

0

25

50

75

100

Balloon Deployment Approach

Zonal Wind (m/s)


Venus

Enhanced Oil Recovery

Airplane

High Temperature Limits of Conventional Components

Technological Limits for Components

Extreme high temperature/high pressure environments are unique to NASA missions

500

Temperature (C)

NASA Needs

Jupiter

Probes

400

Hard solders melt at ~ 400 C

TFE Teflon degenerates at 370 C

Silicon electronics can’t operate above 350 C

Limit of commercial and military applications is currently about 350 C

Geothermal

Magnets and actuators operational limit is ~ 300-350 C

300

Geothermal

Automotive

200

Gas

Soft solders melt at about ~180 C

Connector problems start at ~150 C

Oil Wells

Water boils @ 1 atm at 100 C

100

Terrestrial Applications

Military

25


Power: Battery systems


Thermal Control Technology Needs for Decadal Missions

All reference missions need advanced thermal control to survive and operate in extreme temperature and pressure.


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