Temperature, Pressure, and Radiation in Reference Missions
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Temperature, Pressure, and Radiation in Reference Missions. Pressure vs. Temperature. Radiation vs. Temperature. Pressure ( bars). Radiation( MRad). 1000. 10. Europa Surface and Subsurface. Jupiter Probes. 100. 10. 1.0. Venus Surface Exploration. Titan In-Situ. Earth. 1.0.

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250

Temperature, Pressure, and Radiation in Reference Missions

Pressure vs. Temperature

Radiation vs. Temperature

Pressure ( bars)

Radiation( MRad)

1000

10

Europa Surface

and Subsurface

Jupiter

Probes

100

10

1.0

Venus Surface

Exploration

Titan In-Situ

Earth

1.0

0.1

0.1

Jupiter

Probes

Europa Surface

and Subsurface

Venus Surface

Exploration

Titan

In-Situ

0.01

CNSR

Earth

CNSR

- 250

250

- 250

250

500

500

0

0

Temperature ( C)

Temperature ( C)


250

Summary of Reference Mission Technology Needs

Challenge: All reference missions have to survive and operate in extreme temperature, pressure, and radiation environments.


Venus dynamics explorer

Venus Dynamics Explorer

Objective: Obtain Measurements to explain the general circulation of the Venus atmosphere

  • The cloud-level atmosphere (~70 km) rotates about 60 times faster than the planet’s slowly-rotating surface (4 days vs 242 day period)

    • The mechanisms responsible for this superrotation have evaded theoretical explanation for >30 years


Venus dynamics explorer1

Venus Dynamics Explorer

Approach: Long-lived balloons and Orbiter

  • Network of 12 to 24 long-lived balloons

    • Deployed between the surface and cloud tops at 3-4 latitudes (equatorial, mid, high)

    • Time resolved measurements over ~1 week

      • Discriminates eddies from mean flow

    • VLBI tracking, p, T, solar/thermal radiation

  • Orbiter

    • Required for communications/ tracking

    • UV and Near IR imaging spectrometers for tracking the upper, middle, and lower clouds S- and/or X-band radio science package to retrieve density profile at 34 km and 100 km


250

80

70

60

Altitude (km)

50

40

30

20

10

0

0

25

50

75

100

Balloon Deployment Approach

Zonal Wind (m/s)


250

Venus

Enhanced Oil Recovery

Airplane

High Temperature Limits of Conventional Components

Technological Limits for Components

Extreme high temperature/high pressure environments are unique to NASA missions

500

Temperature (C)

NASA Needs

Jupiter

Probes

400

Hard solders melt at ~ 400 C

TFE Teflon degenerates at 370 C

Silicon electronics can’t operate above 350 C

Limit of commercial and military applications is currently about 350 C

Geothermal

Magnets and actuators operational limit is ~ 300-350 C

300

Geothermal

Automotive

200

Gas

Soft solders melt at about ~180 C

Connector problems start at ~150 C

Oil Wells

Water boils @ 1 atm at 100 C

100

Terrestrial Applications

Military

25


250

Power: Battery systems


Thermal control technology needs for decadal missions

Thermal Control Technology Needs for Decadal Missions

All reference missions need advanced thermal control to survive and operate in extreme temperature and pressure.


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