The Role of Orientation and Mobility in Gross Motor Development and Sensory Integration in Students Who are Visually Imp
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Definition of Orientation and Mobility. Orientation and Mobility, or O
The Role of Orientation and Mobility in Gross Motor Developm...

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1. The Role of Orientation and Mobility in Gross Motor Development and Sensory Integration in Students Who are Visually Impaired BESB, Department of Children?s Services Related Services Unit Orientation and Mobility Group

2. Definition of Orientation and Mobility Orientation and Mobility, or O&M, is made up of two pieces. The ?Orientation? piece is knowing where you are, where you want to go, and how to get to there. The ?Mobility? piece is getting to where you want to go safely and as independently as possible.

3. Basic Outline of Goals for Orientation and Mobility, from birth to grave: Let them know you are there, Keep ?in touch?, Expose them to stimuli, Encourage their curiosity, Get ?em going, Keep ?em safe, Refine their techniques, Expand their knowledge, Expose them to real world situations, Teach them to make good judgments and choices, Teach them to be problem solvers.

4. A more detailed view? Many variables will affect the type and duration of training in orientation and mobility. The most significant factors will be age of onset, severity of vision loss, and the presence and type of additional disabilities. Two enormous factors affecting the rate of acquisition of skills and ultimately the level of independence are, family involvement and Team involvement.

5. Motor Development Infants Toddlers Preschool School Age Beyond What are they doing at each level? How does the vision loss affect their development? How do we habilitate, rehabilitate, and remediate?

6. Areas of Challenge Unintentional, counterproductive, adaptive techniques: Out-toeing Shuffling Head direction for vision (eccentric viewing or null point) Additional disabilities What is straight?

7. Tools for Motor Development

8. Motor Planning Outer space Feeling safe and in control Basic obstacle course Consistent areas for play Consistent locations for toys, etc. Carpeted areas or markers along a route Auditory clues

9. Adaptive Mobility Devices White cane (long cane) or pre-cane Support cane Crutches, Walker, Wheelchair, Motorized device

10. Progressive Difficulty Terrain Preparation 1. Solid, level surfaces 2. Uneven surfaces (e.g. grass and sand) 3. Changes in elevation 4. Ramps, driveways, and inclines 5. Stairs (ascending and descending) Levels of Independence 1. Age appropriate activities 2. OMS pulling back as much as possible to allow individual to function on their own

11. Other Tools Balance games 1. Tipping board, air disc, foam roll 2. Lunch tray with tennis ball 3. Postural lessons 4. Going where your nose takes you Head, shoulders, knees, and toes Videation/Visualization

12. Sensory Integration Sensory Modalities Residual Vision Auditory Tactile Kinesthetic Other Senses (olfactory, etc.)

13. Areas of Challenge Attention/Filtering Tactile Defensiveness Hearing Loss Sensory Integration Disorder

14. Visual Concerns Fluctuating Visual Conditions Depth perception Contrast sensitivity Glare Reduced acuity Reduced fields (peripheral and central)

15. Tools and Strategies for Sensory Integration Visual Aids Monocular Telescopes Magnifiers Sunglasses/Tints Flashlights/Headlamps Echolocation Systematic Desensitization Movement Activities (e.g. Educational Kinesiology Sound Samples

16. A few thoughts to consider? Psychosocial adjustments Developing trust and rapport for facing the fear in some activities Support from family, peers, and the Team Does everyone want the same outcome?


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