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1. The Role of Orientation and Mobility inGross Motor Development and Sensory Integrationin Students Who are Visually Impaired BESB, Department of Childrens Services
Related Services Unit
Orientation and Mobility Group
2. Definition of Orientation and Mobility Orientation and Mobility, or O&M, is made up of two pieces.
The Orientation piece is knowing where you are, where you want to go, and how to get to there.
The Mobility piece is getting to where you want to go safely and as independently as possible.
3. Basic Outline of Goals for Orientation and Mobility, from birth to grave: Let them know you are there,
Keep in touch,
Expose them to stimuli,
Encourage their curiosity,
Get em going,
Keep em safe,
Refine their techniques,
Expand their knowledge,
Expose them to real world situations,
Teach them to make good judgments and choices,
Teach them to be problem solvers.
4. A more detailed view Many variables will affect the type and duration of training in orientation and mobility. The most significant factors will be age of onset, severity of vision loss, and the presence and type of additional disabilities.
Two enormous factors affecting the rate of acquisition of skills and ultimately the level of independence are, family involvement and Team involvement.
5. Motor Development Infants
What are they doing at each level?
How does the vision loss affect their development?
How do we habilitate, rehabilitate, and remediate?
6. Areas of Challenge Unintentional, counterproductive, adaptive techniques:
Head direction for vision (eccentric viewing or null point)
What is straight?
7. Tools for Motor Development
8. Motor Planning Outer space
Feeling safe and in control
Basic obstacle course
Consistent areas for play
Consistent locations for toys, etc.
Carpeted areas or markers along a route
9. Adaptive Mobility Devices
White cane (long cane) or pre-cane
Crutches, Walker, Wheelchair, Motorized device
10. Progressive Difficulty Terrain Preparation
1. Solid, level surfaces
2. Uneven surfaces (e.g. grass and sand)
3. Changes in elevation
4. Ramps, driveways, and inclines
5. Stairs (ascending and descending)
Levels of Independence
1. Age appropriate activities
2. OMS pulling back as much as possible to allow individual to function on their own
11. Other Tools Balance games
1. Tipping board, air disc, foam roll
2. Lunch tray with tennis ball
3. Postural lessons
4. Going where your nose takes you
Head, shoulders, knees, and toes
12. Sensory Integration Sensory Modalities
Other Senses (olfactory, etc.)
13. Areas of Challenge Attention/Filtering
Sensory Integration Disorder
14. Visual Concerns Fluctuating Visual Conditions
Reduced fields (peripheral and central)
15. Tools and Strategies for Sensory Integration Visual Aids
Movement Activities (e.g. Educational Kinesiology
16. A few thoughts to consider Psychosocial adjustments
Developing trust and rapport for facing the fear in some activities
Support from family, peers, and the Team
Does everyone want the same outcome?