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Rusty Epps W6OAT. Rusty was first licensed as KN4BVD in Columbus, GA in October, 1958.   He won the Novice Roundup for Georgia in 1959 (his first contest). He was active in CD Parties for two decades, with many ARRL section victories. Rusty created the GA QSO Party.

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Rusty Epps W6OAT

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Rusty Epps W6OAT

Rusty was first licensed as KN4BVD in Columbus, GA in October, 1958.   He won the Novice Roundup for Georgia in 1959 (his first contest). He was active in CD Parties for two decades, with many ARRL section victories. Rusty created the GA QSO Party.

He was a founder of NCCC and organized the NCCC's first-ever club DXpedition to XE1KS/2 for 1971 CQ WW CW DX Contest.

Active for decades in ARRL DX and CQ WW DX Contests. Numerous wins and records held. Has participated in dozens of multi-op contests, domestically from stations such as K4BVD/6, W6OAT, N6RO, WA7NIN, K6EBB, K6IDX, and internationally as PJØFC, HC8N, P4ØV, P49V, P4ØHQ, A61AJ and YKØA (for which he was the primary organizer).  

Has authored numerous articles on contesting which have appeared in QST, NCJ and club newsletters.

Has been the Section Communications Manager for the ARRL's San Francisco Section, an Assistant Director in the Pacific Division, a Sixth District QSL Bureau card sorter, and an ARRL Volunteer Counsel. He is a Director and President of the NCDXF and Director and Treasurer of The Yasme Foundation. Past president and director of NCDXC

He is the holder of DXCC (373 countries confirmed), #1 DXCC Honor Roll, 5B-DXCC (number 74), 5B-WAS (number 44). Presently serves on the CQ Contest Committee.   Was inducted into the CQ DX Hall of Fame in May, 1996 and into the CQ Contest Hall of Fame in April, 2005.

Ethics: QSLing, Internet,

Remote Operations

Rusty Epps W6OAT

Pushing the Limits

Finding DX

Working it

Confirming it

“Rules” for DXing are different from the rules of contesting.

In DXing, YOU usually are the one who decides what is or is not acceptable.

Finding DX

Traditional Methods:

Tuning for it

Spotting Networks

Other Methods:





  • What constitutes a QSO?

Confirmation data for two-way communications must include the call signs of both stations, the entity name as shown in the DXCC List, mode, date, time and band.

DXCC Rules, Section I, Rule 4

With a pre-arranged sked, both parties already know the:

  • Callsigns

  • Date

  • Time

  • Frequency

  • Mode

    What’s left to know?

From where must the QSO be made?

All stations must be contacted from the same DXCC entity. The location of any station shall be defined as the location of the transmitter. For the purposes of this award, remote operating points must be located within the same DXCC entity as the transmitter and receiver.

DXCC Rules, Section I, Rule 9

  • Who can make the QSO?

All contacts must be made using callsigns issued to the same station licensee. Contacts made by an operator other than the licensee must be made from a station owned and usually operated by the licensee and must be made in accordance with the regulations governing the license grant. Contacts may be made from other stations provided they are personally made by the licensee. The intent of this rule is to prohibit credit for contacts made for you by another operator from another location. You may combine confirmations from several callsigns held for credit to one DXCC award …

DXCC Rules, Section I, Rule 10

QSL Cards and QSLing

Written Proof: … Photocopies and electronically transmitted confirmations (including, but not limited to, fax and email) are not currently acceptable for DXCC purposes. Exception: Confirmations created and delivered by ARRL’s Logbook of the World program are acceptable for DXCC credit.

DXCC Rules, Section I, Rule 2

All confirmations must be submitted exactly as received by the applicant. The submission of altered, forged, or otherwise invalid confirmations for DXCC credit may result in disqualification of the applicant and forfeiture of any right to DXCC membership.

DXCC Rules, Section I, Rule 11


Via Postal Direct

Outer Envelope

No callsigns, Sealing

Inner envelope

Your callsign, Folding, Sealant

Return postage

IRCs, currency, stamps

Your QSL

Easily readable, Your callsign, Info all on one side

Via QSL Bureau

  • Outgoing Bureau

  • Incoming Bureau

  • Keep envelopes (or cash) on file

  • Time in transit

  • Mass mailing of QSLs for all QSOs

Via Traditional QSL Service

Via Online QSL Request Service (OQRS)

Request via bureau

Request direct postal mail

Include a contribution


Via Logbook of The World (LoTW)

  • ARRL awards and CQ awards

A QSL is not merchandise for sale, but the final courtesy of a QSO (from the website of Paul Granger, F6EXV)

Contrary to popular belief in some quarters, a QSL card to confirm a QSO is not a "right". In the same vein GM3VLB does not consider it a requirement on his part to automatically reply to all QSL cards received. Were he to do so, the task would take up an inordinate amount of his already limited time. … It is arrogant to suggest that 'QSLing is the final courtesy of a QSO'. Is it not enough that someone has spent a lot of time and gone to a lot of expense getting equipped for portable operation, and perhaps travelling in severe sea/weather conditions, often making difficult landings, and operating in most uncomfortable surroundings? Is it then fair to expect that person to have thousands of cards printed at their own expense AND to also pay return postage? (from website of Andre Saunders, GM3VLB)

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