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الدخل و الناتج المحلي الإجمالي مفاهيم و طرق القياس Gross Domestic Income and Product PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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الجزء الثاني. الدخل و الناتج المحلي الإجمالي مفاهيم و طرق القياس Gross Domestic Income and Product Concepts & Measurements. د.إقبال الرحماني 2001. إن الناتج المحلى هو كل ما يتم إنتاجه من سلع وخدمات في الاقتصاد المحلي. تساؤل. لماذا نهتم بقياسه ؟ وما علاقته بالنمو الاقتصادي ؟.

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الدخل و الناتج المحلي الإجمالي مفاهيم و طرق القياس Gross Domestic Income and Product

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Gross domestic income and product

Gross Domestic Income and Product

Concepts & Measurements

.

2001


Gross domestic income and product

.


Gross domestic income and product

.

  • + + =

  • + + =

  • + =

() () .


Gross domestic income and product

()

Income :

Wage

Rent

Profit & Interest

Profit

(: )


Gross domestic income and product

( ) ( )

: . :


Gross domestic income and product

3 K.D

3 K.D

()

6 K.D

6 K.D

4 K.D

4 K.D

2 K.D

2 K.D

( )

15 K.D

15 K.D


Gross domestic income and product

/ ( )

=

++ +

Factors of Production Payments / returns (Domestic income)

=

wages + rent + profit + interest


Gross domestic income and product

.

.


Gross domestic income and product

Production

Income

Expenditure

Production

(AS)

Income

(Y)

Expenditure

(AE)


Gross domestic income and product

:

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

Aggregate Supply (AS)

Production (AS)

Income

(Y)

Expenditure (AE)


Gross domestic income and product

Circular flow of income & production Two- sectors economy

Consumption Expenditure (C)

Goods & services

Private Sector

Households Sector

Services of factors of production

Factors of production payment


Gross domestic income and product

:

1- ( ) ( ). Flow.

2- ( consumption expenditure (C ) (Y). ( Aggregate expenditures (AE) .


Gross domestic income and product

Two- sectors economy with the banking system

Investment Expenditures

(I)

Saving (S)

Banking & Financial Sector

Consumption Expenditure (C)

Goods & services

Private Sector

Households Sector

Factors of production

Factors of production Payment


Gross domestic income and product

Two- sectors economy with the banking and financial sector

-1 Saving (Leakage ) . .


Gross domestic income and product

2 - . .

.Planned Investment expenditure


Gross domestic income and product

: Planned (expenditure machines , construction Depreciation Unplanned Investment Inventories.

=

( + + ) + ( )

Private Aggregate Investment Expenditure = Planned investment (machines +buildings +Depreciation) + Unplanned investment (inventories)

  • Injection .


Gross domestic income and product

  • :

  • AS = Y = AE

  • C + S = C + I

  • S = I

    • leakage = injection


  • Gross domestic income and product

    Three- sectors economy

    Government Expenditures (G)

    Net Taxes (NT)

    Government Sector

    Investment Expenditures

    (I)

    Saving (S)

    Banking & Financial Sector

    Consumption Expenditure (C)

    Goods & services

    Private Sector

    Households Sector

    Factors of production

    Factors of production Payment


    Gross domestic income and product

    • Three-sector economy

    Tax (Leakage ) . .

    Government expenditure Injection.

    .


    Gross domestic income and product

    :

    AS=Y = AE

    C+ S + T = C + I + G

    S+T = I + G

    Leakage = injection


    Gross domestic income and product

    Import (M)

    Export (X)

    External Sector

    Government Expenditures (G)

    Net Taxes (NT)

    Government Sector

    Investment Expenditures

    (I)

    Saving (S)

    Banking & Financial Sector

    Consumption Expenditure (C)

    Goods & services

    Private Sector

    Households Sector

    Factors of production

    Factors of production Payment


    Gross domestic income and product

    Imports (Leakage ) . .

    Exports Injection.

    Balance of Trade


    Gross domestic income and product

    :

    AS =Y = AE

    C+ S + T + M = C + I + G + X

    S +T +M = I + G + X

    Leakage = injection


    Gross domestic income and product

    :

    .

    production ( AS) = Income = AE (planned + unplanned )

    ( ) ( ) .

    positive inventories. negative inventories.


    Gross domestic income and product

    If AS > Planned Expenditure

    then there will occur positive inventories

    If AS < Planned expenditure

    then there will occur negative inventories

    Example (1) : AS > planned Expenditure

    $ 1000 m > $ 800 m

    then inventories = $200 m

    Note: AS = AE (Planned & unplanned expenditure

    $ 1000 m = $ 800 m + $ 200 m

    Q : When does a state of equilibrium occurs ?


    Gross domestic income and product

    • Example (2) : The following are the value (in K.D) of domestic production and expenditures in a simplified two-sectors economy:

    • Domestic product (AS)Planned expenditure

    • Machines: 50,000Investment expend. : 45,000

    • Clothes : 30,000Consumption expend.: 25,000

    • Total product:80,000Total expend. :70,000

      • AS > planned ExpenditureInventories (unplanned investment):10,000

      • AS = planned expend. (C+I) + unplanned invest.=AE 80,000 = 10,000 + 70,000


    Gross domestic income and product

    Since :

    Production = Income = Aggregate expenditure

    Then :

    To measure the value of domestic production in any economy, there are three approaches:

    1) The production approach

    2) The income approach

    3) The expenditure approach


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