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DISEASE CAUSED BY MICROORGANISMS (1 st meeting). EKO SUSANTO Study Program of Fisheries Processing Technology Diponegoro University Email : eko_thp@undip.ac.id. TOXICOLOGY ON FISHERIES PROCESSING– 3 (2 – 1). EKO SUSANTO – DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY.

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TOXICOLOGY ON FISHERIES PROCESSING– 3 (2 – 1)

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DISEASE CAUSED BY MICROORGANISMS (1st meeting)

EKOSUSANTO

Study Program of Fisheries Processing Technology

Diponegoro University

Email : eko_thp@undip.ac.id

TOXICOLOGY ON FISHERIES PROCESSING– 3 (2 – 1)

EKOSUSANTO – DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY


Peck, M.W., 2010. Clostridium botulinum. Edited by: Juneja, K.V., and Sofos, K.N. Pathogens and Toxin in Food: challenges and intervention. ASM Press. Washinton DC.

Juneja, K.V., Novak, J.S., and Labbe, R.J, 2010. Clostridium perfringens. Edited by: Juneja, K.V., and Sofos, K.N. Pathogens and Toxin in Food: challenges and intervention. ASM Press. Washinton DC.

Beauchamp, C.S. and Sofos, J.N. 2010. DiarahegenicEschericia coli. Edited by: Juneja, K.V., and Sofos, K.N. Pathogens and Toxin in Food: challenges and intervention. ASM Press. Washinton DC.

Seo, K.S. Bohach, G.H., 2010. Staphylococal Food Poisoning. Edited by: Juneja, K.V., and Sofos, K.N. Pathogens and Toxin in Food: challenges and intervention. ASM Press. Washinton DC.

Wright, A.C. and Sceneider, K.R. 2010. Pathogenic vibrios in seafood. Edited by: Juneja, K.V., and Sofos, K.N. Pathogens and Toxin in Food: challenges and intervention. ASM Press. Washinton DC.

References:

EKOSUSANTO – DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY (eko_thp@undip.ac.id)


Amastrong, G.D. 2008. Pathogenic Mechanisms of the Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli—Some New Insights. Edited by: Wilson, C.L. Microbial Food Contamination 2nd ed. CRC Press. Boca Raton.

Nilsson, L. and Gram, L. . 2002. Improving the control of pathogens in fish products. Edited by: Bremmer, A.H. Safety and quality issues in fish processing. CRC Press. Boca Raton.

WHO-FAO. 2005. Microbiological risk assessment series: Risk assessment of Vibriovulnificus in raw oysters interpretative summary and technical report. WHO-FAO UN.

Garbutt, J. 1997. Essentials of food microbiology. Arnold. London.

Pelczar, M.J. & Chan, E.C.S. 1976. Dasar-dasarmikrobiologi. Diterjemhakan: Hadioetomo et al., 1988. UI press.

Huss, H.H. 1994. Assurance of seafood quality. FAO fisheries technical paper.

REFERENCES: Continue

EKOSUSANTO – DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY (eko_thp@undip.ac.id)


The lecture will be taken place during 4 meetings

10 minutes after lecturer starting lecture. Students are prohibited to get in class.

If the lecturer is late 10 minutes after the start of lecture time without confirmation to students, the students are permitted to leaving class.

Final score consist of 35 % tasks and 65 % of final examination

The students have to attend lecture 75 % minimally.

The lecture consist of class lecture and self study.

The students are permit to get out class during lecture if they don’t want to joining lecture.

LECTURE rules

Eko Susanto – Diponegoro University

EKOSUSANTO – DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY (eko_thp@undip.ac.id)


1st meeting : bacteria toxins in food.

2nd meeting : Clostridium botulinum toxin toxin, Staphylococcus aureus toxin, Eschericia coli toxin.

3rd meeting : Vibrio toxin, Pseudomonas cocovenenans toxin, Fungal toxin (Penicillium).

4th meeting : Presentation

materials

EKOSUSANTO – DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY (eko_thp@undip.ac.id)


  • How do we know if food is being contaminated by bacteria?

  • Please mention bacteria which cause food borne?

  • What are the differences between endotoxin and exotoxin?

    Please answer those questions for 10 minutes.

    • Kerjakan selama 10 menit

QUESTIONS

EKOSUSANTO – DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY (eko_thp@undip.ac.id)


Food-borne diseases are of major concern to consumers, producers and authorities alike.

Despite an increased awareness, the number of cases and outbreaks does not appear to be decreasing.

Many foods are implicated in food-borne disease outbreaks.

Seafoods rank third on the list of products which have caused food-borne disease.

Seafoodborne disease may be caused by a variety of agents, including aquatic toxins, biogenic amines, bacteria, virus and parasites.

Bacteria are mostly found in low numbers in live fish with the exclude of marine vibrios.

Marine vibrios, such as V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus, may be found in high numbers in shellfish and in shellfish-eating fish from tropical waters and during the summer months in temperate zones

INTRODUCTION

EKOSUSANTO – DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY (eko_thp@undip.ac.id)


  • Disease  any harmful change in the tissues and/or metabolism of a plant, animal & human that produces the symptoms of illness.

  • Pathogens  MO that cause disease.

  • Toxin  chemical substances produced by MO that are harmful to human tissues and physiology.

  • Food poisoning  an acute (arising suddenly and of short duration) gastroenteritis caused by the ingestion of food

    (source: Garbutt, 1997

definition


  • Major reasons 4 food being rejected:

    • Organoleptic changes  growth MO

    • Chemical changes in food

    • Physical damage

    • Freezer burn

    • ‘staling’  changes Aw

    • Ripening

    • Presence of foreign materials

    • Contamination with chemical agent

The nature of food spoilage


Internal factor (Aw, pH, redox potential, nutrition, natural antibacteria, biology structure)

Processing factors (hot treatment, irradiation, pasteurization, grinding)

External factors (environment, temperature)

Implicit factor (compt become dominant)

Factors of food

Factors THAT CAUSE BACTERIA GROWTH

EKOSUSANTO – DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY (eko_thp@undip.ac.id)


Extrinsic factor

Contaminating microflora

Interaction

Implicit factors

Intrinsic factors

Growth of specific spoilage microflora

Spoilage symptoms

Interactions involved in the selection of spoilage microflora

Source: Garbutt, 1997

EKOSUSANTO – DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY (eko_thp@undip.ac.id)


MO changes on stored food

EKOSUSANTO – DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY (eko_thp@undip.ac.id)


MO changes on stored food on cold temperature

EKOSUSANTO – DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY (eko_thp@undip.ac.id)


SOURCES OF CONTAMINATION OF FOOD

Aerosol

Air

Spoiled foods

Water

Soil

Dust

Processing equipment

Raw material with natural micro flora

Sewage

Diseased plants & animals

Humans

Packaging materials

Pests

Source: Garbutt, 1997

Feces

EKOSUSANTO – DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY (eko_thp@undip.ac.id)


If we take fresh fish fillets stored on ice. What are the potential sources of contamination?


Natural surface & gut flora of fish

Water & possibly sediment from natural habitat

Fishing nets

Surfaces on board the fishing vessels

Fish boxes

Ice / refrigerated sea water

Human resources

Pests

Soil

air


  • Gram-negative rods & coccobacilli.

    Acinetobacter, aeromonas, Alcaligenes, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Flavobacterium, Moraxella, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Shewanella, & Yersinia

  • Gram positive rods

    Bacillus, Brochothrix, Clostridium, Corynebacterium, Lactobacillus, & Listeria

  • Gram negative cocci

    Enterococcus, Lactococcus, Pediococcus, & Staphylococcus.

Composition of contaminating mo


  • Skeletal muscle : Trichinella spiralis

  • Stomach : Helicobacter pylori

  • Liver : Clonorchis

  • Small intestine :

    Astroviruses, Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, E. coli, Salmonellae, S.typhi, Vibrio cholerae, V.parahaemolyticus

  • Large intestine/colon :

    Campylobacter (small intestine), E.coli, Entamoeba histoytica, Salmonella eneritidis, Shigellae, especially S. dysenteridae.

Pathogenesis of foodborne & related organism

EKOSUSANTO – DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY (eko_thp@undip.ac.id)


General appearance  moldy (F) & slimy (B)

Color  F (red/black) & B (colored); chemical changes --> greening of meat (H2S)

Texture  Pseudomonas fluorescens at fish --> prod proteinase caused tissues to soften

Odor / flavor  MO prod chem. associated with metab. act.

A mixture of the above

Changes in foods caused by spoilage MO

EKOSUSANTO – DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY (eko_thp@undip.ac.id)


1. The permanent Mo is essential in combating invasion of the body by potential pathogens by competing 4 space & nutrients, stms producing antibiotics. Ex: E.coli  prevent salmonellae in the colon

2. Bacteria in the colon synthesize vit. K & contribute significantly to our req. of protein

HOW DO MO CAUSE DISEASE?

EKOSUSANTO – DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY (eko_thp@undip.ac.id)


  • Exotoxin:

    toxin is secreted by MO into the cell environment

  • Endotoxin:

    toxin is produced by MO & secreted if the MO cell being damaged.

Disease production by mo

EKOSUSANTO – DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY (eko_thp@undip.ac.id)


Exotoxin

Exotoxin – soluble protein released into environment by active cell

Enterotoxin

Neurotoxin

Affects the gut

Affects the nervous system

Characteristic:

Generally proteins synthesized by metabolic activity.

Produced by gram-positive & gram-negative organism.

No structural components of the cell

Secreted into the cell environment.

Exotoxin

Source: Garbut, 1997

EKOSUSANTO – DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY (eko_thp@undip.ac.id)


Endotoxin

Lipopolysaccharide in outer wall layer

Exotoxin

Act as an enterotoxin in the gut

Toxic shock

Rash

Inflammation of organ

Fever

Characteristic:

Lypopolysacharides.

Toxic components of the cell wall released when the cell dies & breaks down.

Produced by gram-negative MO

ENDOTOXIN

Source: Garbut, 1997

EKOSUSANTO – DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY (eko_thp@undip.ac.id)


  • Food poisoning  an acute (arising suddenly and of short duration) gastroenteritis caused by the ingestion of food (Garbutt, 2007).

  • Gastroenteritis is characterized by:

    • Abdominal pain;

    • Diarrhoea

    • With / without vomiting

    • With / without fever

  • Bacteria caused food poisoning: S. aureus, C. perfringens, C.botulinum, & Bacillus cereus.

FOOD POISONING

EKOSUSANTO – DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY (eko_thp@undip.ac.id)


Intoxication & infection

EKOSUSANTO – DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY (eko_thp@undip.ac.id)


Active organism secretes exotoxin (enterotoxin ) into food

Food eaten

Enterotoxin affect gut giving gastroenteritis

Enterotoxin affect gut giving gastroenteritis

Intoxications involve food poisoning in which the organism grows in the food & releases a toxin from cells.

Toxin is ingested along with the food, toxin gives rise to the food poisoning syndrome.

Bacteria toxins that produce intoxication are exotoxins.  S aureus & C botulinum

Source: Garbut, 1997

intoxication

EKOSUSANTO – DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY (eko_thp@undip.ac.id)


Organism ingested along with food

Dose sufficient to overcome host defenses

Organism grows in the host gut

Organism affects gut giving gastroenteritis

Organism appears in faeces in large number

Infection involve food poisoning caused by ingestion of live organism when the organisms grow in the gastrointestinal tract to produce the disease.

Most food poisoning caused by infection. Ex. Salmonella spp & C. perfringens

infections

EKOSUSANTO – DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY (eko_thp@undip.ac.id)


Na+ out

H2O out

Diarrhoea

Enterotoxin affects vomit receptors

Fluid and electrolyte loss

Vomiting centre in the brain stimulated

Dehydration

Vomiting

Normal gut physiology

Enterotoxin ingested with food

Gut epithelium

Blood supply

Na+

H2O

Connective tissue

Vomit receptor

physiological mechanism associated with food poisoning (garbutt, 1997)


  • Ingestion can lead to people on the situation:

    • Acute illness with med treatment (MT)

    • Acute illness without MT

    • Mild illness without MT, symptoms can be ignored

    • Infection without symptom

EKOSUSANTO – DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY (eko_thp@undip.ac.id)


Age

Diet

Nutrition’

Genetic make-up of the person

The presence of other disease

Suppressed immunity

Previous contact with the disease

Factors cause person become ill

EKOSUSANTO – DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY (eko_thp@undip.ac.id)


Major food poisoning organisms associated with seafood Organism causing disease (Nilsson & Gram, 2002)

EKOSUSANTO – DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY (eko_thp@undip.ac.id)


Continued:

EKOSUSANTO – DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY (eko_thp@undip.ac.id)


Pathogen bacteria on seafood

EKOSUSANTO – DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY (eko_thp@undip.ac.id)


Thank you for attention


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