Analysis of diagnostic essay the deductive argument
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Analysis of Diagnostic Essay: The Deductive Argument. English 102 Argumentation. The Language of Argument. utterance sentence proposition premise conclusion argument. Utterance: a meaningful or non-meaningful verbal expression. La de da! I don’t care what you say. The sky is green.

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The language of argument
The Language of Argument

  • utterance

  • sentence

  • proposition

  • premise

  • conclusion

  • argument


Utterance a meaningful or non meaningful verbal expression
Utterance: a meaningful or non-meaningful verbal expression

  • La de da!

  • I don’t care what you say.

  • The sky is green.


Sentence a meaningful utterance that has a subject and a predicate
Sentence: a meaningful utterance that has a subject and a predicate

  • We /don’t have to agree with our teammates about everything in order to work together effectively.


Proposition a true or false statement about the world
Proposition: a true or false statement about the world predicate

  • All students can write outstanding papers in four languages.

  • Human beings are not perfect.


Argument at least one premise accompanied by a conclusion
Argument: at least one premise accompanied by a conclusion predicate

  • Human beings are not perfect.

  • Horace is a human being.

  • Therefore, Horace is not perfect.


Premise a proposition that is used as evidence for a claim conclusion
Premise: a proposition that is used as evidence for a claim (conclusion)

  • Human beings are not perfect.

  • Horace is a human being.


Major Premise: offers a generalization about a large group or class that has been arrived at through inductive reasoning or observation of particulars

  • Human beings are not perfect.


Minor premise makes a statement about a member of that group or class
Minor Premise: makes a statement about a member of that group or class

  • Horace is a human being.


Conclusion claim a proposition that is derived from at least one premise
Conclusion (claim): a proposition that is derived from at least one premise

  • Therefore, Horace is not perfect.


Valid argument the conclusion follows from the premises whether or not the premises are true
Valid Argument: The conclusion follows from the premises whether or not the premises are true

  • All students can write outstanding papers in four languages. (T or F?)

  • Horace is a student. (T)

  • Therefore, Horace can write outstanding papers in four languages.(Valid or invalid?)


Sound Argument: an argument in which all premises are true and the conclusion follows from the premises

  • Human beings are not perfect. (T)

  • Horace is a human being. (T)

  • Therefore, Horace is not perfect. (valid and sound)


Warrant: a general principle or assumption that establishes a connection between the support and the claim

  • Substantive: based on beliefs about the reliability of factual evidence

  • motivational: based on the values of the arguer and the audience

  • authoritative: based on the credibility of the sources


In support of mercy killing
In Support of Mercy Killing a connection between the support and the claim

  • Major Premise (motivational warrant): People have a basic right to choose.

  • Minor Premise (support): Terminally ill and suffering patients are people.

  • Conclusion (claim): Terminally ill and suffering patients have the right to choose mercy killing.


Implied argument in the introductory anecdote
Implied Argument (in the introductory anecdote) a connection between the support and the claim

  • Major Premise (warrant): When dealing with a terminally ill patient who is suffering terribly, the most humane course of action is desirable.

  • Minor Premise (support): Mercy killing is more humane than prolonging suffering when dealing with a terminally ill patient who is suffering terribly.

  • Conclusion (claim): Mercy killing should be allowed when it is the most humane course of action for a terminally ill and suffering patient.


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