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An Introduction to RoboCup. June 10, 2007 by Seyed Ehsan Safavieh. Overview of RoboCup. The Robot World Cup Initiative “By the year 2050, develop a team of fully autonomous humanoid robots that can win against the human world soccer champion team.” A standard problem for AI research.

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An introduction to robocup
An Introduction to RoboCup

June 10, 2007

by Seyed Ehsan Safavieh


Overview of robocup
Overview of RoboCup

  • The Robot World Cup Initiative

  • “By the year 2050, develop a team of fully autonomous humanoid robots that can win against the human world soccer champion team.”

  • A standard problem for AI research


Overview of robocup1
Overview of RoboCup

  • Started in 1992 as the Robot J-League (Japan)

  • First games and conferences in 1997

  • Workshops, conferences and yearly competitions





Robocup four legged
RoboCup four-legged

  • Two teams of four-legged robots (Sony AIBO's) compete against each other. The robots are entirely autonomous and no human intervention is allowed.

  • The robots use wireless networking to communicate with each other and with the game referee. Challenges include vision, self-localization, planning, and multi-agent coordination.


Robocup small size
RoboCup small size

  • In this league, two teams of small-sized robots compete. This event focuses on the issues of multi-agent cooperation with a hybrid centralized/distributed system.


Robocup middle size
RoboCup middle size

  • Two teams of mid-sized robots compete against each other. All sensors are on-board. Robots are entirely autonomous and no human intervention is allowed. Robots can use wireless networking to communicate.


Robocup humanoid
RoboCup Humanoid

  • In this league, robots with human-like bodies and human-like sensing compete. This league has two subcategories: Kid-size and Teen-size. This league currently consists of penalty kicks and 2-on-2 soccer matches.


Robocup simulation
RoboCup Simulation

  • Server

  • Monitor clients

  • Player clients (i.e. agents!)

  • Coach clients



Clients and server

Client

Client

Client

Server

Client

Client

Client

Client

Client

Client

Client

Client

Client

Clients and Server

  • One server

  • Up to 11 clients per team (plus coach)

  • Clients/server communicate via UDP/IP


Client

Client

Client

Server

Client

Client

Client

Client

Client

Client

Client

Client

Client

  • Can be written in any language (C++, Java, Smalltalk, ...)

  • Can be run on same machine or a network

  • Clients may talk only to the server... not to each other!


Client

Client

Client

Server

Client

Client

Client

Client

Client

Client

Client

Client

Client

Coach

Coach

Soccer Monitor

  • Monitor(s) used to visualize the action and/or interrupt the game

  • Coaches (optional) to give guidance to teams


Robocup clients
RoboCup Clients

  • Autonomous agents

  • The “brains” of the players

  • Sensory information received from server, decision made, action command sent back to server

  • One agent represents one player

  • One agent designates itself as the goalie


Robocup clients1

time

play mode

my body

landmarks

other players

speech

coach instructions

dash

turn

turn head

kick

catch

speak

Player

Agent

decision-making

strategy

Sensory Input

Outputs

RoboCup Clients


Robocup server
RoboCup Server

  • Keeps time (typically 6000 simulator cycles, 10 cycles per second)

  • Receives client messages, updates “world model”, sends back new status information

  • “Automated Referee” tracks current play mode



Starting a game
Starting a Game

  • Download and install applications (running the configure and make scripts for the Unix / Linux systems)

  • Run the Server (default host is localhost and default port is 6000)

  • Run the Monitor, connecting to the host and port of the Server

  • Connect the players to the Server host and port

  • Start the kick-off!


Coaches
Coaches

  • Privileged clients used to provide assistance

  • Receives noise-free view of the whole field

  • Can only send occasional messages to players (info, advice, freeform, etc.)

  • Used for opponent modelling, game analysis, giving strategic tips to teammates



Some robocup clients
Some RoboCup Clients

  • UvA Trilearn (Amsterdam) (2003 champion)

  • CMUnited (Carnegie Mellon)

  • Everest (China)

  • FC Portugal 2003 (Portugal)

  • HELIOS (Japan)

  • Magma Furtwangen (Germany)


Typical approaches
Typical Approaches

  • Hard-coded behaviour

  • Scripted behaviour (e.g. planning)

  • Neural Networks

  • Opponent Modelling

  • Layered Learning

  • Behaviour Networks


Example uva trilearn
Example: UvA Trilearn

  • Coordination Graphs for passing, anticipating passes

  • Layered skills hierarchy (pass, intercept)

  • Formations

  • Behaviour modelling of opponents


Example fc portugal
Example: FC Portugal

  • Strategic, ball possession, ball recovery behaviours

  • “Situation Based Strategic Positioning”

  • Given game situation, calculated best position and go there


Example krislet
Example: Krislet

  • Only one strategy: run to the ball and try to kick it!

  • Surprisingly effective

  • Written in Java, easy to extend


Soccer simulation leagues

Client

Client

Client

Server

Client

Client

Client

Client

Client

Client

Client

Client

Client

Coach

Coach

Soccer Simulation Leagues

  • 2D

  • 3D

  • Coach


Other projects
Other Projects

  • Soccer Server 3D

  • 3D Soccer Monitor (Robologvis)

  • Tools to convert logs into Flash animations

  • Log analyzers (eg. Team Assistant, Paul Marlow’s Classifier)



Earthquake disaster
Earthquake Disaster

  • Top 10 earthquakes in the 20th century


Robocup rescue robot
RoboCup Rescue Robot

  • In the Rescue Robot league, robots explore a specially constructed disaster site about the size of a small house. The disaster site includes mannequins with various signs of life, such as waving hands, shouting noises and heat, hidden amongst stairs, platforms and building rubble.


Robocup rescue robot1
RoboCup Rescue Robot

  • The robots, some under human control, must find and approach the victims, identify their signs of life and produce a map of the site showing where the victims are located. The aim is to provide human rescuers with enough information to safely perform a rescue. Each team is scored based on the quality of its maps, the accuracy of the victim information and the number of victims found.


Robocup rescue simulation
RoboCup Rescue Simulation

  • Disaster environment is simulated in computer

  • Aims to simulate large urban areas

  • 2D simulation (Although simulation is in 2D, 3D viewer is now available)


Robocup rescue simulation1
RoboCup Rescue Simulation

  • Multi-agent approach, heterogeneous agents, rescue strategies are tested

  • Seven different types of agent

    • Ambulance, fire fighter, police agents and control center agents for each of them, and civilians

  • Cooperation is needed among agents

    • Communication is limited



Robojunior dance
RoboJunior Dance

  • This is the oldest RoboCupJunior event. One or more robots come together with music, dressed in costume and moving in creative harmony.


Robojunior soccer
RoboJunior Soccer

  • In this event, 2-on-2 teams of autonomous mobile robots play in a highly dynamic environment, tracking a special light-emitting ball in an enclosed, landmarked field.


Robojunior rescue
RoboJunior Rescue

  • In this event, robots identify victims within re-created disaster scenarios, varying in complexity from line-following on a flat surface to negotiating paths through obstacles on uneven terrain,


References
References

  • www.robocup.org

  • www.robocup-us.org

  • www.robocup2006.org

  • Most of the information about RoboCup itself was taken using from the RoboCup Soccer Server manual.

  • For the latest manuals and code, visit the RoboCup project website at:

    • http://sourceforge.net/projects/sserver


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