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Accommodating Struggling Learners in Mathematics. How can we, as teachers support our struggling scholars so that they can still have success? . Challenges that Struggling Learners Face . Difficulty retrieving arithmetic facts Difficulty understanding mathematical concepts

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accommodating struggling learners in mathematics

Accommodating Struggling Learners in Mathematics

How can we, as teachers support our struggling scholars so that they can still have success?

challenges that struggling learners face
Challenges that Struggling Learners Face

Difficulty retrieving arithmetic facts

Difficulty understanding mathematical concepts

Struggle to find and appropriately use alternate strategies

Students struggle to identify language to follow directions and or solve story problems.

math instruction issues that impact students with math learning problems
Math Instruction Issues that Impact students with math learning Problems
  • Spiral Curriculum
    • If you don’t get it now, eventually you will.
    • Struggling students need consistent practice with basic skills before moving on
  • Teaching to mastery
    • Students may not get to mastery
    • What skills can we incorporate to support them if they can’t?
  • Reforms that are cyclical in nature
    • Shifts to Common Core
    • Student’s home life
concrete to representational to abstract instruction cra instruction
Concrete-to-Representational-to-Abstract Instruction (CRA Instruction)

Concrete: each math skill is first modeled with concrete materials such as chips, counters, pattern blocks, etc.

Representational: The math concept is then modeled with tallies, dots, circles, etc

Abstract: The math concept is modeled at the abstract level with numbers and symbols. These should be used with the drawings

Teaching Math to Students with Disabilities. Accessed March 25, 2014. http://view.officeapps.live.com/op/view.aspx?src=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.specialed.ccsu.edu%2Fnicoll-senft%2FTeaching%2520Math%2520to%2520Students%2520with%2520Disabilities.ppt

implementation of c r a instruction
Implementation of C-R-A Instruction

Describe and model the new math concept

Allow for multiple opportunities to use concrete objects

Provide many practice opportunities where students will draw their solutions or use pictures to solve

When students demonstrate mastery by drawing solutions, describe and model how to use and perform skills using only math symbols

Again, give students multiple practice opportunities by performing the sills with numbers and symbols

Give students periodic practice to support maintenance of their acquire skill

Teaching Math to Students with Disabilities. Accessed March 25, 2014. http://view.officeapps.live.com/op/view.aspx?src=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.specialed.ccsu.edu%2Fnicoll-senft%2FTeaching%2520Math%2520to%2520Students%2520with%2520Disabilities.ppt

c r a instruction
C-R-A Instruction

How can you use the C-R- A Instruction in both small groups and full groups while in your classroom?

explicit modeling
Explicit Modeling

Provides a clear and accessible format for acquiring and understanding the mathematics concept

Allows students to become independent learners and problem solvers.

Teacher both describes and models the math skill/concept.

Teacher clearly describes features of the math concept or steps in performing math skill.

Teacher breaks math concept/skill into learnable parts.

Teacher describes/models using multi-sensory techniques.

Teacher engages students in learning through demonstrating enthusiasm, through maintaining a lively pace, through periodically questioning students, and through checking for student understanding.

Provides students with a learning map

Teaching Math to Students with Disabilities. Accessed March 25, 2014. http://view.officeapps.live.com/op/view.aspx?src=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.specialed.ccsu.edu%2Fnicoll-senft%2FTeaching%2520Math%2520to%2520Students%2520with%2520Disabilities.ppt

instructional techniques for explicit instruction
Instructional Techniques for Explicit Instruction

Identify what students will learn, both visually and auditory

Link what they already know from background knowledge and previous experiences

Discuss the importance of the concepts

Break the skill into 3-4 learnable parts

Describe each piece with visual devices and examples

Cue students to essential attributes of the skill that you are modeling

Teacher Interaction

Think Aloud

Teaching Math to Students with Disabilities. Accessed March 25, 2014. http://view.officeapps.live.com/op/view.aspx?src=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.specialed.ccsu.edu%2Fnicoll-senft%2FTeaching%2520Math%2520to%2520Students%2520with%2520Disabilities.ppt

implementing explicit instruction
Implementing Explicit Instruction

Ensure that your students have the prerequisite skills to perform the skill.

Break down the skill into logical and learnable parts (Ask yourself, "what do I do and what do I think as I perform the skill?").

Provide a meaningful context for the skill (e.g. word or story problem suited to the age & interests of your students).

Provide visual, auditory, kinesthetic (movement), and tactile means for illustrating important aspects of the concept/skill (e.g. visually display word problem and equation, orally cue students by varying vocal intonations, point, circle, highlight computation signs or important information in story problems).

"Think aloud" as you perform each step of the skill (i.e. say aloud what you are thinking as you problem-solve).

Link each step of the problem solving process (e.g. restate what you did in the previous step, what you are going to do in the next step, and why the next step is important to the previous step).

Periodically check student understanding with questions, remodeling steps when there is confusion.

Maintain a lively pace while being conscious of student information processing difficulties (e.g. need additional time to process questions).

Model a concept/skill at least three times before beginning to scaffold your instruction.

Teaching Math to Students with Disabilities. Accessed March 25, 2014. http://view.officeapps.live.com/op/view.aspx?src=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.specialed.ccsu.edu%2Fnicoll-senft%2FTeaching%2520Math%2520to%2520Students%2520with%2520Disabilities.ppt

explicit modeling1
Explicit Modeling

Take a moment to identify how you could use explicit modeling in either small or full group instruction to support scholars

authentic mathematics learning contexts
Authentic Mathematics Learning Contexts
  • Explicitly connect the target skills to a relevant context, promoting a deeper understanding for students
  • Teacher describes/models math concept/skill
  • Embedded within contexts that are meaningful to your students.
  • Consider your student\'s age-related interests, cultural/community interests, and common experiences your students share.
  • Examples:
    • Think Story Problems!
    • Shopping at the mall to look at geometric shapes
    • Identifying amount needed to buy something

Teaching Math to Students with Disabilities. Accessed March 25, 2014. http://view.officeapps.live.com/op/view.aspx?src=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.specialed.ccsu.edu%2Fnicoll-senft%2FTeaching%2520Math%2520to%2520Students%2520with%2520Disabilities.ppt

critical elements to authentic learning contexts
Critical Elements to Authentic Learning Contexts

Contexts that are meaningful for the students you are teaching (age, interests, experiences). Contexts may be school related, family related, or community related.

Explicit teacher modeling of math skill is incorporated.

Relevance of math concept/skill to the authentic context is clearly demonstrated.

Student practice of math skill follows teacher instruction. Teacher monitors, provides specific corrective feedback, remodels as needed, and provides positive reinforcement.

Teaching Math to Students with Disabilities. Accessed March 25, 2014. http://view.officeapps.live.com/op/view.aspx?src=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.specialed.ccsu.edu%2Fnicoll-senft%2FTeaching%2520Math%2520to%2520Students%2520with%2520Disabilities.ppt

implementation
Implementation

Teacher chooses appropriate context within which to teach target math concept/skill.

Teacher activates student prior knowledge of authentic context, identifies the math concept/skill students will learn, and explicitly relates the target math concept/skill to the meaningful context.

Teacher explicitly models math concept/skill within authentic context.

Teacher involves students by prompting student thinking about how the math concept/skill is relevant to the authentic context.

Teacher checks for student understanding.

Students receive opportunities to apply math concept or perform math skill within authentic context. Teacher monitors, provides specific corrective feedback, remodels math concept/skill as needed, and provides positive reinforcement.

Teacher provides review and closure, explicitly re-stating how the target math skill relates to the authentic context and remodeling the skill.

Students receive multiple opportunities to apply math concept or practice math skill after initial instructional activity.

Incorporating the teacher instruction strategies, Building Meaningful Student Connections, Explicit Teacher Modeling, & Scaffolding Instruction when teaching within authentic contexts can be very effective.

Teaching Math to Students with Disabilities. Accessed March 25, 2014. http://view.officeapps.live.com/op/view.aspx?src=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.specialed.ccsu.edu%2Fnicoll-senft%2FTeaching%2520Math%2520to%2520Students%2520with%2520Disabilities.ppt

authentic mathematics learning contexts1
Authentic Mathematics Learning Contexts

How can you incorporate this into your instruction?

math intervention and accommodation strategies for struggling learners
Math Intervention and Accommodation Strategies for Struggling Learners
  • Intensify Instruction
    • More modeling
    • Use concrete learning opportunities
    • Break tasks down into smaller steps
    • Step-by-Step Strategies
    • Give extra support for a temporary amount of time
    • Provide opportunities for practice and feedback.

Center on Instruction. Intensive interventions for Students Struggling in Reading and Math. 2012. Accessed on March 23, 2014. http://www.centeroninstruction.org/files/Intensive%20Interventions%20for%20Students%20Struggling%20in%20Reading%20%26%20Math.pdf

teach using multiple instructional examples
Teach Using Multiple Instructional Examples
  • Model “I do, We do, You do”
  • Focus on selecting and sequencing your instructional examples
    • Scaffolding will be needed when acquiring new skills for students to master and be successful on.
  • Teach to a wide range of knowledge so that students can carry their mastery oer to other concepts.
  • Scaffold in a way that students can master simple to complex tasks

Center on Instruction. Mathematics Instruction For Students with Learning Disabilities of Difficulty learning Mathematics. Accessed on April 2, 2014. http://www.centeroninstruction.org/files/Mathematics%20Instruction%20LD%20Guide%20for%20Teachers.pdf

have students talk it out
Have Students “Talk it Out”

Encourage students to think aloud their decision making

Ask questions to support scaffolding

Students can verbalize steps in a solution format using self questioning. This can be done before, during, and/or after they have solved

Verbalization may help anchor skills and strategies for those who are LD. Verbalization can also facilitate student self-regulation when solving.

Center on Instruction. Mathematics Instruction For Students with Learning Disabilities of Difficulty learning Mathematics. Accessed on April 2, 2014. http://www.centeroninstruction.org/files/Mathematics%20Instruction%20LD%20Guide%20for%20Teachers.pdf

teach students to visually represent information in math problems
Teach Students to Visually Represent Information in Math Problems

Visual representations from both teachers and students can help explain and clarify problems.

Visuals can be effective when combined with explicit instruction.

Center on Instruction. Mathematics Instruction For Students with Learning Disabilities of Difficulty learning Mathematics. Accessed on April 2, 2014. http://www.centeroninstruction.org/files/Mathematics%20Instruction%20LD%20Guide%20for%20Teachers.pdf

teach students to s olve using heuristic strategies
Teach Students to Solve Using Heuristic Strategies
  • Can address computational skills, problem solving, and fractions
  • A Heuristic Strategy approach can be in steps
    • A way to organize information
    • Include student discussion and reflection
    • Read the problem, circle numbers, underline key words, solve the problem, check your work
    • Discuss answers, why does it work?

Center on Instruction. Mathematics Instruction For Students with Learning Disabilities of Difficulty learning Mathematics. Accessed on April 2, 2014. http://www.centeroninstruction.org/files/Mathematics%20Instruction%20LD%20Guide%20for%20Teachers.pdf

provide ongoing formative assessments and feedback to students
Provide Ongoing Formative Assessments and Feedback to Students

Ongoing assessment and evaluation can help teachers measure the rhythm of student growth and help them fine tune instruction to meet student’s needs.

Center on Instruction. Mathematics Instruction For Students with Learning Disabilities of Difficulty learning Mathematics. Accessed on April 2, 2014. http://www.centeroninstruction.org/files/Mathematics%20Instruction%20LD%20Guide%20for%20Teachers.pdf

other techniques strategies to support struggling scholars
Other techniques/Strategies to Support Struggling Scholars:

Read Word Problems Aloud

Visual Aids and Guides with Step by Step Instructions

Peer Buddy

Ask student to summarize information

Sit near teacher or other area for less distractions

  • Provide student with kinesthetic approaches
  • Provide multiple ways to solve
    • Ex: 2+5 can be done with fingers, touch math, blocks, and tallies.
  • Provide extra examples of vocabulary
  • Differentiate task by giving them more practice on skills
now it is your turn
Now it is your turn!

Using your student population group students into the struggling, average, and above average learners.

Think about these groups strengths and weaknesses while reviewing IEP and your curriculum

Design and model a lesson or skill most still struggle with using C-R-A, Explicit Modeling, or Authentic Concepts. Think about what other accommodations you can use to support scholars as well

Be prepared to share by stating your lesson’s objective, how you would use the curricular framework of your choice, how you would implement other accommodations, what do you think will go well upon implementation, as well as what challenges may arise?

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