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eCommerce Technology 20-751 Lecture 3: Mobile eBusiness. Human Data Interactions. Personal computer Internet PDA Telephone Cellphone Global Position System (GPS) Beeper Movies TV, cable Radio FAX Computer game Print media. Current Status - Low Connectivity. GPS. TELEPHONE.

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human data interactions
Human Data Interactions
  • Personal computer
  • Internet
  • PDA
  • Telephone
  • Cellphone
  • Global Position System (GPS)
  • Beeper
  • Movies
  • TV, cable
  • Radio
  • FAX
  • Computer game
  • Print media
current status low connectivity
Current Status - Low Connectivity

GPS

TELEPHONE

PERSONAL

COMPUTER

PDA

FAX

CELLPHONE

COMPUTER

GAMES

INTERNET

TELEVISION

RADIO

BEEPER

MOVIES

PRINT MEDIA

slide4

After Convergence

EVERYTHING IN ONE (VIRTUAL) NETWORK

MSDW

TradeRunnerSM

GPS

TELEPHONE

PERSONAL

COMPUTER

PDA

FAX

CELLPHONE

COMPUTER

GAMES

INTERNET

TELEVISION

RADIO

BEEPER

MOVIES

PRINT MEDIA

networked economy means new business models

Management

Consumers

( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (

MobileEmployees

Virtual Call Center

Employees

Networked Economy Means New Business Models

PhysicalFacilities

Network

( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (

( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (

Virtual Corporation

Virtual Workforce

Virtual Shopping

Partners, Suppliers

SOURCE:ANIXTER

networking demands
Networking Demands
  • Instantaneity, location-independence, mobility
  • “Anything-Anytime-Anywhere”
    • nomadic computing
  • Consolidation of data sources
    • Phone, PDA, fax, computer, TV, radio, beeper
  • Multimedia
  • But:
    • Internet is principally land-based (fiber)
    • Phone, cellular and Internet systems are distinct
    • Devices do not talk to each other
    • Bandwidth too low for multimedia
traditional voice networking
Traditional Voice Networking

PSTN

(Public Switched Telephone Network)

Quality of Service Guaranteed

Levels of Service One

Pricing Model Usage-Sensitive, Distance-Sensitive

Architecture Voiceband, Dedicated Bandwidth

SOURCE: CISCO

content of a conversation
Content of a Conversation

Essential Components

22%

Repetitive

22%

Pauses

56%

Over half of the typical voice call is silence!

SOURCE: CISCO

traditional ip networking
Traditional IP Networking

IP

Network

Quality of Service Best Effort

Levels of Service One

Pricing Model Usage & Distance Insensitive (Flat Rate)

Architecture Broadband, Shared Bandwidth

SOURCE: CISCO

the world of convergence
The World of Convergence

Routing

Switch

Routing

Switch

Routing

Switch

( ( ) )

Policy

&

Directory

Services

IP Based transport infrastructure

Routing

Switch

Routing

Switch

Routing

Switch

SOURCE: CISCO

voice enabled enterprise ip network

LAN Switch

Routers

Connection

Manager

LAN Switch

LAN Switch

LAN Switch

Voice-Enabled Enterprise IP Network

PSTN

Soft Phones

Gateway

IP

Phones

IP

USB Phones

Computer-based

Voice Apps

Messaging Apps

Other

Apps

Call Center

Apps

SOURCE: CISCO

internet fax

PBX

PBX

F

F

F

RD

Internet FAX

PSTN

  • Store and forward and FAX relay
  • Least cost routing

WAN

Directory Server

POP

Internet

POP

Directory Server

FAX Printing Software

LEC PSTN

Mail/FAX

Server

Billing Server

Redialer

SOURCE: CISCO

evolution of the pbx run everything on ip

Video Mail

Server

E-Mail Server

IP Phones

IP LAN

Firewall

Internet

Policy / Directory Services

Evolution of the PBX - Run Everything On IP

Voice Mail

Server

PBX Server

SOURCE: CISCO

quality of service qos
Quality of Service (QoS)
  • Three kinds of packets
    • Data (delay tolerable)
    • Voice (delay < 200 ms tolerable)
    • Video (little delay)
  • Must meet packet delivery-time requirements
  • Must treat different packets differently
a qos problem delay
A QoS Problem - DELAY

Usability of Voice Circuit as a Function of End-to-End Delay

  • To hit the target:
    • Eliminate PC delay
    • Lower network latency
    • Tighten network jitter

Usability

factor

Fax Relay,Fax Broadcast

Toll Quality

Satellite

CB Radio

I-Phone

Today

Time (msec)

SOURCE: CISCO

voice quality vs cost
Voice Quality vs. Cost

Utility

Business

Unacceptable

Toll

Cellular Voice

PCM

Voice over ATM

Cost

Voice over Frame Relay

(Intranet)

(Internet)

Voice over IP

Quality

quality of service on 1 slide
Quality of Service on 1 Slide
  • Routers cannot not store state information about packets: too slow.
    • Technique: mark each packet with a simple flag indicating how to treat it.
differentiated forwarding
Differentiated Forwarding
  • Each router sorts packets into queues via differentiated services (DS) flag
  • Queues get different treatment (e.g. priority, share of bandwidth, probability of discard)
  • Result is coarsely predictable class of service for each DS field value.
  • Cost of transmission varies by type of service.
converged networks value proposition
Converged Networks: Value Proposition
  • Value goes up with distance
  • Value goes up with ubiquity across the Enterprise
  • Value goes up with integrated functionality
  • Value goes up with quality

Value

fundamental mobility cellphones

MACROCELL: $1M

FAST-MOVINGSUBSCRIBERS

PICOCELLS

MICROCELL: $250K

SLOW-MOVINGSUBSCRIBERS

Fundamental Mobility: Cellphones

GEOGRAPHIC

CELL LAYOUT

cell handover

Curvilinear triangle z

has choice of 3 cells

Idealized circular omnidirectional cells

Minimum

performance

contour

z

A

x

y

B

Handover threshold

contour

Distance x-y should be sufficient for fastest vehicle

to stay in darker band during the slowest handover

Cell Handover

SOURCE: R. C. LEVINE, SMU

bluetooth
Bluetooth

A standard permitting for wireless connection of:

  • Personal computers
  • Printers
  • Mobile phones
  • Handsfree headsets
  • LCD projectors
  • Modems
  • Wireless LAN devices
  • Notebooks
  • Desktop PCs
  • PDAs
bluetooth characteristics
Bluetooth Characteristics
  • Operates in the 2.4 GHz Industrial-Scientific-Medical (ISM) (unlicensed)! band. Packet switched. 1 milliwatt. Low cost.
  • 10m to 100m range
  • Uses Frequency Hop (FH) spread spectrum, which divides the frequency band into a number of hop channels. During connection, devices hop from one channel to another 1600 times per second
  • Bandwidth 1-2 megabits/second
  • Supports up to 8 devices in a piconet (two or more Bluetooth units sharing a channel).
  • Built-in security.
  • Non line-of-sight transmission through walls and briefcases.
  • Easy integration of TCP/IP for networking.
mobile e business challenges
Mobile E-Business Challenges
  • Location dynamically changing
  • Asymmetric cost function
  • Low power devices
  • Limited storage on mobile devices
  • Frequent disconnection / loss of service
  • Security
  • Low display and multimedia capability
wireless mobility
Wireless Mobility

Satellite Regional Area

Emerging Connectivity Solutions:

Cellular, Satellite, Microwave, and Packet Radio

Wide Area

Local Area

SOURCE: CISCO

mobile ip provides seamless connectivity
Mobile IP Provides Seamless Connectivity

Conferences

Home

Internet

ISP Access

through the

Internet

Dialup

Hotel

Commuting

Meeting Rooms

LANs and

VLANs

Cellular or Mobile

SOURCE: CISCO

mobile commerce growth

1,400,000,000

1,200,000,000

1,000,000,000

Cellular

Subscribers

800,000,000

Internet PC\'s

600,000,000

400,000,000

WAP

Handsets

200,000,000

-

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

Mobile Commerce Growth

SOURCE: DANET

wap applications

Internet

MobileNetwork

WAP Applications

Web Content

Server

Non Mobile

Internet User

WAP Gateway

Mobile

Terminal

Database

Server

SOURCE: DANET

wap wireless application protocol
WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)
  • Communication between a mobile phone and a server connected to the phone network
  • Uses WML (Wireless Markup Language)
  • WAP specification (pdf file)
  • WAP simulator
ubiquitous computing
Ubiquitous Computing
  • Average U.S. house has 15 microprocessors (1999)
  • Average new U.S. car has 7 microprocessors (1999)
  • Sensors
    • temperature, humidity, fluid level
    • microphones, cams
    • body-embedded (personal status monitor)
  • Wearable computers
  • Active badge (AT&T Cambridge) IR detection
ubiquitous computing1
Ubiquitous Computing

SOURCE: INTERSHOP

gps satellite constellation
GPS Satellite Constellation
  • Global Positioning System
  • Operated by USAF
  • 25 satellites
  • 6 orbital planes at a height of 20,200 km
  • Positioned so a minimum of 5 satellites are visible at all times
  • Reciever measures distance to satellite

SOURCE: NAVSTAR

trilateration

11,000 miles

Trilateration

One measurement narrows down our position

to the surface of a sphere

We\'re somewhere

on the surface of

this sphere.

SOURCE: TRIMBLE NAVIGATION

trilateration1

Intersection of two

Spheres is a circle

Trilateration

Second measurement narrows it down to intersection of two spheres

SOURCE: TRIMBLE NAVIGATION

trilateration2
Trilateration

Third measurement narrows to just two points

SOURCE: TRIMBLE NAVIGATION

trilateration3
Trilateration

Fourth measurement will decide between two points

SOURCE: TRIMBLE NAVIGATION

slide37

DGPS

Reference

Station

Positioning by Differential GPS

Civilian accuracy < 30 feet

Military accuracy < 1 foot

SOURCE: NAVSTAR

automatic vehicle location avl
Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL)
  • Benefits of AVL
  • Fast dispatch
  • Customer service
  • Safety, security
  • Digital messaging
  • Dynamic route optimization
  • Driver complicance
  • Sample AVL Users
  • Chicago 911
  • Inkombank, Moscow
  • Taxi companies

SOURCE: TRIMBLE NAVIGATION

gps applications
GPS Applications
  • Cellphone/GPS child locator (NTT)
  • Monitor shipments
  • Truck/rolling stock/airplane tracking
  • Precision farming
  • Locating stolen cars
  • Tour buses
  • Fishing fleets
  • Roadside service
  • Construction projects (Chunnel)
slide40

Q

A

&

ad