Research Opportunities. Air Quality and Human Health 2004 Olympic Games Athens, Greece Karsten Baumann Georgia Institute of Technology School of Earth & Atmospheric Sciences. Asthma Epidemic.
Air Quality and Human Health2004 Olympic GamesAthens, GreeceKarsten BaumannGeorgia Institute of TechnologySchool of Earth & Atmospheric Sciences
The percentage of the US population with the disease has nearly doubled since 1980. In 2000, ~11 million people suffered an asthma attack.
Sources: Morbidity & Mortality: 2002 Chart Book on Cardiovascular, Lung, and Blood Diseases; National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2002.
Latest Findings on National Air Quality: 2001 Status and Trends; EPA 454/K-02-001; US EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS); September 2002.
Emergency room visits for treatment of asthma increase by 30-40 % when ambient ozone levels are elevated. The US EPA estimates that more than 110 million people reside in counties where the air is consistently unhealthy due to periodic ozone pollution.
Athens 2004 Air Quality Study, 1997
Moussiopoulos & Papagrigoriou
Aristotle University Thessaloniki & Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering (LHTEE), Thessaloniki, Greece
IS THIS SUFFICIENT ?
Georgia Institute of Technology
Centers for Disease Control
Emory University Asthma Clinic
Research Institute (GTRI)
Air Resources Engineering Center (AREC)
(SOS, SCISSAP, ChinaMAP, FAQS, TexAQS, PERCH)
Regional Difference: Higher OM/OC and OC/EC at more rural site!
Seasonal Difference: Lower OM/OC and higher OC/EC in winter.
Baumann et al., JGR in press
High-Rise O3 levels are significantly higher early mornings and lower at midday
Positive vertical [PM2.5] ‘gradients’ favored more often at night than at day
(SCISSAP, FAQS, TexAQS, ACE-Asia, TRACE-P)
Transient Events in Atlanta
Midday sulfate peaks from downmixed power plant plumes.
Morning rush hour EC/OC.
Most intense during stagnation events. Links to health effects?! (Weber et al., JAWMA in Jan 2003)
TRACE-P Biomass Burning
Ma et al., JGR, submitted 2002
(ChinaMAP, PRDS, PERCH, ACE-Asia)
Ongoing Joint PBS*
Detect > 100 POC species
n-alkanes, branched alkanes, cycloalkanes
n-alkanoic acids, n-alkenoic acids
*) US-DOD funded “Study of Air Quality Impacts Resulting from Prescribed Burning on Military Facilities” 2002.
Pensacola, FL October 1999
Zheng et al., ES&T 2002
On-Board Monitoring (A.Unal)
Effect of Traffic Congestion
on Vehicle Emissions
Allows measurement of vehicle emissions and engine parameters under real-world conditions
Enables finding relationships between vehicle emissions and traffic parameters
Computer Simulation with Air Quality Model
Impact to Downwind City
at Military Base
Adaptive Grid Modeling
Direct sensitivity analysis for predicting the air quality impacts of anthropogenic activities.
Part of DOD-funded “Study of Air Quality Impacts Resulting from Prescribed Burning on Military Facilities” 2003
Sumner Co., TN
Graves Co., KY
Additional AREC Contributors
=> Lawrence et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 2002: http://www.atmos-chem-phys.org
See also Lelieveld et al., Science 298, 2002
Skyhook Retrieval System for launch and retrieval over sea
US Patent 6,264,140
International Patents in Process
These benefits will help all cities with air quality problems, give insights to improving human health, and will become part of the International Olympics Legacy