Chapter 5 developing a measurement strategy
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Chapter 5: Developing a Measurement Strategy. Scales of Measurement Reliability and Validity Modalities of Measurement Locating and Evaluating Measures. Reliability & Validity. Why is reliability important? Theory can’t do without it Constructs can’t be valid unless they are reliable

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Chapter 5: Developing a Measurement Strategy

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Chapter 5 developing a measurement strategy

Chapter 5: Developing a Measurement Strategy

  • Scales of Measurement

  • Reliability and Validity

  • Modalities of Measurement

  • Locating and Evaluating Measures


Reliability validity

Reliability & Validity

  • Why is reliability important?

    • Theory can’t do without it

    • Constructs can’t be valid unless they are reliable

    • A phenomenon must be reliably demonstrated before it can have construct status

    • E.g. ESP, Loch Ness Monster

  • What are some examples of phenomena important to:

    • Counselors?

    • I/O psychologists?


Reliability validity1

Reliability & Validity

  • Manifest variables:

    • Directly observable

  • Hypothetical Constructs:

    • Not directly observed (inferred)

  • What are some examples?

    • Behavioral?

    • Psychological constructs?

  • Which types (manifest/hypothetical) are:

    • Operational definitions?

    • Hypothetical constructs?

  • How are Operational definitions and Hypothetical constructs related?

    • Operational definitions represent hypothetical constructs


Reliability validity and measurement error

Reliability & Validityand measurement error

  • Reliability & Validity

    • Reliability – consistency

    • Validity – accuracy

    • Polygraph

      • Reliable and valid?

    • Can something be reliable but not valid?

    • Can something be valid but not reliable?

  • Measurement Error

    Xo= T+E (Observed score = True score + Error)

    Randon v. systematic error

    What kind of error is introduced when an applicant fakes on a personality measure? Other examples?


Assessing reliability

Assessing Reliability

  • Forms

    • Test-retest

    • Alternate forms (equivalent forms)

    • Interrater reliability

    • Internal consistency

      • Split half

      • Cronbach’s alpha (coefficient alpha)

        • mean r among all items

  • Which one to use?

    • Give some examples

  • Standards for reliability

    • What’s acceptable?


Assessing validity

Assessing Validity

  • Validity

    • Inferred

    • Depends on different types of evidence

    • Varies in how much (degree)

    • Trichotomized into: high, moderate, low

    • Specific to what it’s used for (valid for what?)

    • refers to inferences drawn, not the measure itself

    • A unitary construct (with three types of evidence)

      • Content,

      • criterion-related (predictive, concurrent)

      • Construct


Validity

Validity

  • Convergent

    • Related to other constructs it should be related to

  • Divergent

    • Not related to other constructs it should not be related to

      which should be convergent and which divergent?

    • IQ and Depression

    • Work motivation and conscientiousness

    • Happiness and wealth

    • Need for approval and caring about how one looks

    • Ability to sell and friendliness

    • Aggression and frustration level


Validity determining degree of validity

Validity:Determining Degree of Validity

  • Measure validation process

    • See figure 5-4

  • Theory of trait

  • Test hypotheses

  • Confirm/disconfirm

  • Do it again

  • Never ending (seemingly)

    • Eg. CPI, WGCTA, WPT, NEO, Beck DI


Validity differential

Validity: Differential

  • Valid for specific population, group?

    • Moral reasoning?

      • Different cultures, Gender (Gilligan, ’82)?

    • Math tests?

      • Gender?

    • PONS test?

      • Gender?

    • Personality inventories?

      • Fakers v. honest?

      • Job setting v. home setting?


Reliability validity modalities of measurement

Reliability & Validity: Modalities of Measurement

  • Self-Report Measures

    • Advantages

    • Limitations

  • Behavioral Measures

    • Advantages

    • Limitations

  • Physiological Measures

    • Advantages

    • Limitations

  • Choosing a Measurement Modality


Modalities

Modalities:

  • Self-Report

    • Cognitive

    • Affective

    • Retrospective v. Hypothetical (behavioral intention)

    • Kinesthetic

  • Advantages

    • Easy to collect

    • Easy to administer

    • Feelings (cannot observe)

    • Thought process (Policy capturing)

    • May be more accurate than observation. Why?

  • Limitations

    • Accuracy of recall

    • Willingness to report

    • Verbal skills needed


Self report modalities

Self Report Modalities:

  • How to

    • Ask about actual previous behaviors

    • Use dichotomous or categorical for or behavior or behavioral intentions

    • Use Likert (5, 7 or 9) for attitudes

    • Include both positively and negatively scaled items

    • Use graphic labels or benchmarks

    • Use multiple items to capture a concept

    • Avoid leading double barreled questions (usually)


Modalities behavioral measures

Modalities:Behavioral Measures

  • Uses

    • Behavior is object of study

    • Operational definitions

    • Nonverbal may be clue to feelings/ physio state

  • Types of measures

    • Frequency (bar presses)

    • Rate

    • Duration

    • Intensity

    • Accuracy

    • Persistence

  • Examples?


Behavioral measures

Behavioral Measures

  • Advantages

    • Surreptitious (sneaky)

      • Avoids evaluation apprehension

    • Capture automatic behaviors

      • Often not premeditated

    • More accurate than behavioral intention

  • Limitations

    • “what you see is what you get” What limitation is implied here?

      • Interpretation is inferred by observer

    • Highly situation-specific

      • That’s why R. Hogan likes to use personality trait as predictor

    • Need trained observers


Modalities physiological measures

Modalities: Physiological Measures

  • Purposes

    • Of interest in and of itself

    • As op definition of psychological state

      • E.g. anxiety, arousal, lying

  • Advantages

    • Most direct (no intervening human observer

    • Highly precise

  • Limitations

    • Need equipment, trained administrators

    • Obtrusive

    • Constrain freedom

    • Source of unreliability (testing effects)

      • E.g. polygraph


Modalities choosing locating measurement modality

Modalities:Choosing & Locating Measurement Modality

  • Choosing: Self-report, behavioral, physiological

    • Rank them for level of validity

    • Which one should be used?

    • See table 5-2 relative advantages and limitations

    • Multiple operationism

    • Categories of Measures (figure 5-7, p. 147)

      • Type: manifest v. hypothetical

      • Hypothetical construct:

        • Psychometric (used for individual scores)

        • research measures (used for mean scores; norms)

          • Developed (use when it fits procedure)

          • Ad hoc (when you have to develop it)


Modalities locating evlauting measures

Modalities: Locating & Evlauting Measures

  • Locating Measures

    • MMY

      • (Buros)

    • Tests in Print

    • Directory of Unpublished Experimental Measures

      • (Goldman & Sanders, 1997)

    • Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Attitudes

      • (Robinson, Shaver,& Wrightsman, ’91)

    • Organizational Measures

      • Warr, Cook and Wall??


Modalities evaluating them

Modalities: Evaluating Them

  • Theoretical Background

    • How much construct standing?

  • Quality of Development

    • Participant samples, norms

  • Reliability & Validity

    • What are good coefficients for each?

    • Valid for what?

  • Freedom from Response Bias

    • Social desirability

    • Acquiescence bias


Developing a measurement strategy summary

Developing a Measurement StrategySummary

  • Scales of Measurement

  • Reliability and Validity

  • Modalities of Measurement

  • Locating and Evaluating Measures


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