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Series Circuits

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Series Circuits

8 Note Boxes

A Battery and a Bulb-Simple Circuits

- Unsuccessful ways to light a bulb.

A Battery and a Bulb-Simple Circuits

- Unsuccessful ways to light a bulb.
- Successful ways to light a bulb.

Electrons Flow…

- from the negative part of the battery through the wire
- to the side (or bottom) of the bulb
- through the filament inside the bulb
- out the bottom (or side)
- through the wire to the positive part of the battery

Box #1-2 notes

- In series circuits, current can only take one path.
- The amount of current is the same at all points in a series circuit.

Series Circuits

Box #2

- The main disadvantage of a series circuit is that when one device fails, the current in the whole circuit stops.
- Some cheap light strings are connected in series.
- When one lamp burns out, you have to replace it or no lights work.

Voltage in a Series Circuit

Box #3-2notes

- Voltage: electrical potential; gives force to move electrons through a circuit
- Voltage is linked to energy; to increase voltage you can use a stronger battery OR add batteries

- More voltage is like a stronger pump
- Giving more force and more current
- To find total voltage, you simply add each individual battery

Voltage-Potential Holders

- Batteries are considered to contain potential energy; often called potential difference
- Batteries give voltage: circuits use voltage
- The voltage at the negative end of the batteries is always zero

Electrical Current

Box #4-3 notes

- Current: moving electrons; how easily electrons can move
- Increasing electricity (voltage)=More current=Brighter lights!
- Current is measured in amps (energy!) C-I-A

Light bulbs, motors, and wires create resistancein a circuit.

Resistance: slows down the current

The longer the wire or the more bulbs/motors, the more the resistance.

Resistance is measured in Ohms

Box #5-4 notes

Box #6

- Adding devices in a circuit increases resistance
- More resistance=less current
- Less current=less light

- Each resistance in a series circuit adds to the total resistance of the circuit.

Box #7

Rtotal = R1 + R2 + R3...

Total resistance

(ohms)

Individual resistances (W)

Ohms’s Law

Box #8

(Amps)

(volts)

(ohms)

Each separate resistance creates a voltage drop as the current passes through.

As current flows along a series circuit, each type of resistor transforms some of the electrical energy into another form of energy

Ohm’s law is used to calculate the voltage drop across each resistor.

Box #6

- Recognize and sketch examples of series circuits.
- Calculate the current in a series circuit containing up to three resistances.
- Calculate the total resistance of a circuit by combining series resistances
- Design and construct series circuits