Chemical compounds of life
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CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE. CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS MUS T CONTAIN THE ELEMENT CARBON MOS T CONTAIN THE ELEMENT HYDROGEN MANY CONTAIN OXYGEN AND NITROGEN. INORGANIC COMPOUNDS IF A SUBSTANCE IS NOT ORGANIC, THEN…. CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE.

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CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

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Chemical compounds of life

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE


Chemical compounds of life1

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    • MUST CONTAIN THE ELEMENT CARBON

    • MOST CONTAIN THE ELEMENT HYDROGEN

    • MANY CONTAIN OXYGEN AND NITROGEN

  • INORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    • IF A SUBSTANCE IS NOT ORGANIC, THEN…


Chemical compounds of life2

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • WHAT DO YOU THINK IS THE MOST IMPORTANT, AWESOME, AMAZING INORGANIC COMPOUND THAT MATTERS THE MOSTEST?


Chemical compounds of life3

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • WATER – THE IMPORTANT INORGANIC COMPOUND

    • THE MAJORITY OF BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES CAN OCCUR ONLY IN WATER!!

    • UNDERSTANDING THE PROPERTIES OF WATER BECOMES ESSENTIAL TO UNDERSTANDING THE PROPERTIES OF LIFE


Chemical compounds of life4

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • WATER IS A POLAR MOLECULE

    • REGIONS WITH PARTIALPOSITIVE AND PARTIALNEGATIVE CHARGES

  • BECAUSE OF THISPOLARITY, WATER HASSOME UNIQUE PROPERTIES


Chemical compounds of life5

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • WATER PROPERTIES INCLUDE

    • COHESION

    • SURFACE TENSION

    • ADHESION

    • CAPILLARITY (CAPILLARY ACTION)


Chemical compounds of life6

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • STRUCTURE AND TYPES OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    • CARBON OFFERS INCREDIBLE FLEXIBILITY IN THE FORMATION OF COMPOUNDS

    • THERE ARE 4 MAJORGROUPS OF ORGANICCOMPOUNDS


Chemical compounds of life7

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • FOUR MAJOR GROUPS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    • CARBOHYDRATES

    • LIPIDS

    • PROTEINS

    • NUCLEIC ACIDS


Chemical compounds of life8

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • CARBOHYDRATES

    • COMPOUNDS OF CARBON, HYDROGEN, AND OXYGEN

    • ALWAYS HAVE THE SAME RATIO OF HYDROGEN TO OXYGEN (2:1)

    • MONOSACCHARIDES(SIMPLE SUGARS)

    • CHEMICAL NAMES OFSUGARS ALMOST ALWAYS END IN “-OSE”


Chemical compounds of life9

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS

    • THE PROCESS BY WHICH MOLECULES CAN BE BONDED TOGETHER

    • OCCURS THROUGH THE REMOVAL OF A WATER MOLECULE AND FUSING THE RESULTING SUBSTANCES TOGETHER


Chemical compounds of life10

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS

    • WHEN JOINING TWO MONOSACCHARIDES TOGETHER, THE RESULTING MOLECULE IS CALLED A DISACCHARIDE


Chemical compounds of life11

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS

    • WHEN MULTIPLE SIMPLE SUGARS ARE JOINED TOGETHER THE RESULTING MOLECULE IS CALLED A POLYSACCHARIDE


Chemical compounds of life12

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • IF MOLECULES CAN BE FUSED TOGETHER, THEY MUST ALSO BE ABLE TO BE BROKEN APART

  • THIS PROCESS IS CALLED HYDROLYSIS


Chemical compounds of life13

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • LIPIDS


Chemical compounds of life14

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • LIPIDS

    • CONSIST OF THE SUBSTANCES COMMONLY CALLED FATS, OILS, AND WAXES

    • CONSIST OF CARBON, HYDROGEN, AND OXYGEN…HOWEVER, NOT IN THE SAME RATIO AS CARBOHYDRATES

    • FORMED THROUGH THE FUSION OF GLYCEROL AND FATTY ACID MOLECULES


Chemical compounds of life15

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • LIPIDS


Chemical compounds of life16

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • LIPIDS

    • SATURATED VS UNSATURATED FATS


Chemical compounds of life17

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • LIPIDS

    • CHOLESTEROL

      • A SPECIAL TYPE OF LIPID


Chemical compounds of life18

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • NUCLEIC ACIDS

    • DNA VS RNA

    • SUBUNITS ARE CALLEDNUCLEOTIDES

    • WILL DISCUSS THIS MORE IN FUTURE CHAPTERS


Chemical compounds of life19

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • PROTEINS

    • COMPOUNDS THAT CONTAIN NITROGEN, ALONG WITH CARBON, HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN

    • THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF PROTEINS ARE CALLED AMINO ACIDS(A.K.A. PEPTIDES)


Chemical compounds of life20

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE


Chemical compounds of life21

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • PEPTIDES CAN BE FUSED TOGETHER BY…

  • DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS

    • RESULTS INDIPEPTIDES

    • RESULTS INPEPTIDEBONDS


Chemical compounds of life22

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • SINCE THERE ARE 20 AMINO ACIDS, AND THEY CAN BE PUT TOGETHER IN ANY COMBINATION WHEN FORMING POLYPEPTIDES, THE NUMBER OF POSSIBLE PROTEINS IS HUGE!!

  • THEREFORE, THEY SERVE ENDLESS FUNCTIONS!!


Chemical compounds of life23

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS OF PROTEINS IS WHEN THEY ACT AS ENZYMES!!!!!!

  • ALL ENZYMES ARE PROTEINS, BUT NOT ALL PROTEINS ARE ENZYMES.


Chemical compounds of life24

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • ENZYMES

    • PROTEINS THAT ARE NECESSARY FOR MOST OF THE CHEMICAL REACTIONS THAT OCCUR IN LIVING CELLS

    • ACT AT ORGANIC CATALYSTS

      • A CATALYST IS A SUBSTANCE THAT SPEEDS UP A CHEMICAL REACTION WITHOUT BEING CHANGED ITSELF


Chemical compounds of life25

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • ENZYMES

    • THE SUBSTANCE THAT THE ENZYME REACTS WITH IS CALLED THE SUBSTRATE

  • WHAT DO YOU NOTICE ABOUT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ENZYME AND SUBSTRATE?


Chemical compounds of life26

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • HOW ENZYMES WORK?

    • ACTIVE SITE

      • SPOT ON ENZYME WHERE SUBSTRATE BINDS

    • TWO THEORIES ON ENZYME ACTION

      • LOCK-AND-KEY MODEL

      • INDUCED FIT MODEL


Chemical compounds of life27

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • LOCK-AND-KEY MODEL

    • SUBSTRATE’S SHAPEMATCHES EXACTLY WITH ACTIVE SITE OF ENZYME

    • THEREFORE, ONLYONE SUBSTRATE CAN EVER REACT WITH AN ENZYME

    • THEY ARE HIGHLYSPECIFIC!!


Chemical compounds of life28

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • INDUCED-FIT MODEL


Chemical compounds of life29

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • ENZYMES ARE ESSENTIAL FOR LIVING THINGS BECAUSE THEY MAKE METABOLIC PROCESSES POSSIBLE

  • SO, WE SHOULD KNOW MORE ABOUT ENZYMES!!


Chemical compounds of life30

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • FACTORS THAT AFFECT ENZYME ACTION

    • CONCENTRATION OF EITHER SUBSTRATE OR ENZYME

    • TEMPERATURE

    • PH

    • PRESENCE OF COENZYMES


Chemical compounds of life31

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • FACTORS THAT AFFECT ENZYME ACTIVITY


Chemical compounds of life32

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • REMEMBER, ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ARE THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF LIFE!!


Chemical compounds of life33

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • THERE MAY BE MILLIONS OF BUILDING BLOCKS


Chemical compounds of life34

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF LIFE

  • BUT ONLY PUTTING THE RIGHT ONES TOGETHER IN THE RIGHT WAY, WILL BUILD A LIVING THING!!

  • UP NEXT, LEARNING ABOUT WHAT THOSEBUILDING BLOCKSHELP MAKE!!


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