The War of 1812. Tecumseh the Shawnee chief and his brother the “prophet” led resistance against land hungry Americans. Growth: Population in Ohio: 1810: 230,000 1817: 300,000. Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa. Solidified alliances with northern tribes and British agents and fur traders.
The War of 1812
Tecumseh the Shawnee chief and his brother the “prophet” led resistance against land hungry Americans.
Population in Ohio: 1810: 230,000
Solidified alliances with northern tribes and British agents and fur traders.
Goal: potential war against United States.
Angered as far back by the Governor of Indiana William Henry Harrison whose treaties consistently ripped off the Shawnee.
“no tribe has the right to sell, even to each other, much less to strangers…sell to a country! Why not sell the air, the sky, the earth?” Tecumseh
Harrison took advantage of Tecumseh’s advantage to rip off the Shawnee.
Made a hero out of Harrison.
Strengthened Tecumseh’s resolve to hold back Americans.
Native American resolved.
Indian conflicts of 1811 merged with larger conflict with England known as the War of 1812.
1809-1812: Madison teetered between England and France as the enemy as both were attacking American merchant ships.
Jefferson’s Embargo Act of 1807-no outside commerce. Impact?
Madison’s Non-Intercourse Act (1810) forbade commerce with only England and France and their colonies—limiting our commerce.
Offered an opportunity to either Britain or France…stop the nonsense and trade. France signed on first, and then continued the nonsense!
Nearly everyone was disappointed with Madison’s miscalculation and the disruption in trade.
The nation responded with elections in 1810 that brought into power the War Hawks. Young Republicans eager to avenge the insult.
Thoughts were that a quick victory could be achieved in four weeks…took 2.5 years.
Northern invasions were blunders and revealed our unpreparedness
British and Native American forces were very powerful.
Most were engaged in illegal English trade and dragged their feet on raising men.
They hoped to created dissension amongst the Americans.
Republicans painted a picture of Federalist disloyalty.
Election of 1812 a close call…reflecting Federalist anger.
Major victory at York (1812-Toronto)
Burned capital of Canada.
Victories on Lake Erie by Oliver Hazzard Perry.
10,000 Creek Indians had allied with the British and put up a significant assault using Spanish support.
Jackson ended the Creek war he led 2500 militia against the Creek at the battle of Horshoe Bend.
Got them to relinquish thousands of square miles of land.
August of 1814: the British sail into Chesapeake Bay throwing the Nation into turmoil.
Capital is burned 8/24/1814
Dolly Madison’s famous tale.
Marching from Canada to New York the British seemed to have every advantage, artillery, cavalry, navy…yet they made key errors in the battle of Plattsburgh and retreated to Canada.
Jackson and his militia (Horseshoe Bend) encountered British outside New Orleans in January of 1815.
Most impressive victory in US History.
2,500 British casualties.
Jackson an instant hero.
The decisive battle of the war.
Discussed secession of New England
Proposed abolishing 3/5 clause
Limit congressional rights to embargo
Looked to break Southern Power
Federalist Party destroyed.