The war of 1812
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The War of 1812. Tecumseh the Shawnee chief and his brother the “prophet” led resistance against land hungry Americans. Growth: Population in Ohio: 1810: 230,000 1817: 300,000. Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa. Solidified alliances with northern tribes and British agents and fur traders.

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The War of 1812

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The War of 1812

Tecumseh the Shawnee chief and his brother the “prophet” led resistance against land hungry Americans.


Population in Ohio: 1810: 230,000

1817: 300,000

Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa

Solidified alliances with northern tribes and British agents and fur traders.

Goal: potential war against United States.

Angered as far back by the Governor of Indiana William Henry Harrison whose treaties consistently ripped off the Shawnee.

Tecumseh’s confederacy

“no tribe has the right to sell, even to each other, much less to strangers…sell to a country! Why not sell the air, the sky, the earth?” Tecumseh

Harrison took advantage of Tecumseh’s advantage to rip off the Shawnee.

Shawnee split

Made a hero out of Harrison.

Strengthened Tecumseh’s resolve to hold back Americans.

Battle of Tippecanoe

Tecumseh’s Death.

Native American resolved.

Battle of Thames

Indian conflicts of 1811 merged with larger conflict with England known as the War of 1812.

1809-1812: Madison teetered between England and France as the enemy as both were attacking American merchant ships.

The War of 1812

Jefferson’s Embargo Act of 1807-no outside commerce. Impact?

Madison’s Non-Intercourse Act (1810) forbade commerce with only England and France and their colonies—limiting our commerce.

The Economic War

Offered an opportunity to either Britain or France…stop the nonsense and trade. France signed on first, and then continued the nonsense!

Macon’s Bill #2

Nearly everyone was disappointed with Madison’s miscalculation and the disruption in trade.

The nation responded with elections in 1810 that brought into power the War Hawks. Young Republicans eager to avenge the insult.

Henry Clay

Elections of 1810: The War Hawks

Favoring War

  • War Hawks

  • South and West

  • Expansionists

    War Hawks

  • Quadruple the defense budget!

Opposing the War

  • Vote in June 1812:

  • Favor of war: South and West

  • Against: Parts of New England and Mid Atlantic.

    Ironic development

  • The British had announced just days earlier an end to search and seizure of American ships.

  • Congress had acted, the momentum was great.

Thoughts were that a quick victory could be achieved in four weeks…took 2.5 years.

Northern invasions were blunders and revealed our unpreparedness

British and Native American forces were very powerful.

Invasion of Canada

Most were engaged in illegal English trade and dragged their feet on raising men.

They hoped to created dissension amongst the Americans.

Republicans painted a picture of Federalist disloyalty.

Election of 1812 a close call…reflecting Federalist anger.

New England

Major victory at York (1812-Toronto)

Burned capital of Canada.

Victories on Lake Erie by Oliver Hazzard Perry.

Tide Turns

10,000 Creek Indians had allied with the British and put up a significant assault using Spanish support.

Jackson ended the Creek war he led 2500 militia against the Creek at the battle of Horshoe Bend.

Got them to relinquish thousands of square miles of land.

Andrew Jackson gains fame (part I)

August of 1814: the British sail into Chesapeake Bay throwing the Nation into turmoil.

Capital is burned 8/24/1814

Dolly Madison’s famous tale.

British Offensive

Star Spangled Banner

  • Francis Scott Key penned the famous song after witnessing a fierce defense by the Maryland militia from Fort McHenry.

Marching from Canada to New York the British seemed to have every advantage, artillery, cavalry, navy…yet they made key errors in the battle of Plattsburgh and retreated to Canada.

September 1814

Conclusions of Plattsburgh

  • The British concluded that any interaction with this war would be very expensive and have long term consequences.

Battle of New Orleans: Turning Point

Jackson and his militia (Horseshoe Bend) encountered British outside New Orleans in January of 1815.

Most impressive victory in US History.

2,500 British casualties.

80 Americans.

Jackson an instant hero.

The decisive battle of the war.

New Orleans

Andrew Jackson

Treaty of Ghent

  • Signed prior to the Battle of New Orleans!

  • Neither country claimed victory—they may have had it been signed later.

  • Americans yielded on Impressment.

  • US Gave up claims to Canada.

  • British abandoned aid to Indians.

  • Nothing said about shipping rights.

  • Commission created to analyze Canadian border

Federalists Outraged

Discussed secession of New England

Proposed abolishing 3/5 clause

Limit congressional rights to embargo

Looked to break Southern Power

Federalist Party destroyed.

Hartford Convention


War Hawks

Republican Party



Federalist Party

Winners and Losers

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