Strategies for defining and understanding critical technology integration terms
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Strategies for Defining and Understanding Critical technology integration Terms. Ahmed Fagehi SPRING 2012. The Background of the Study.

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Strategies for defining and understanding critical technology integration terms

Strategies for Defining and Understanding Criticaltechnology integrationTerms

Ahmed Fagehi SPRING 2012


The background of the study
The Background of the Study

  • “Students who join a certain academic community need to learn the appropriate meaning and usage of the specialized terms of their field” (Lessard-Clouston, 2005).

  • Students encounter difficulties learning specialized terms of their field, specially non-native students who don't have the same language background (Chung&Nation,2004).


  • Educational Technology is constantly adding new terms that are fostered by the evolution of technology and pedagogical methods (Serduikov, 2000).

  • Terms that describe teaching methods that integrate various technologies in the learning process are emerging as a result of the evolution of pedagogy and technology (Anohina, 2005).

  • Those terms need to be identified and defined precisely.


  • Recent research focuses are fostered by the evolution of technology and pedagogical methods (on the effect of using multimedia on vocabulary acquisition.

  • There is a need to examine which combinations of multimedia are more effective in aiding vocabulary learning.

  • Also, there is a dearth of studies for measuring the effectiveness of learning non-concrete words with multimedia (Mohsen, 2011).


The purpose of study
The Purpose of Study are fostered by the evolution of technology and pedagogical methods (

  • The purpose of this study is to identify the key technology integration terms, and to investigate the effect of using three instructional strategies for learning these terms: Text alone; Text and Video; and Text, Video + Engagement Question.


Technology integration terms
Technology Integration Terms are fostered by the evolution of technology and pedagogical methods (


The multimedia instructional s trategies
The Multimedia are fostered by the evolution of technology and pedagogical methods (Instructional Strategies

  • Text alone.

  • Text and video.

  • Text, video and engagement question.


Condition 1 text alone
Condition 1: Text are fostered by the evolution of technology and pedagogical methods (alone


Condition 2 text and v ideo
Condition 2: are fostered by the evolution of technology and pedagogical methods (Text and Video

Text

Video


Condition 3 text video and engagement q uestion
Condition 3: Text, Video and Engagement are fostered by the evolution of technology and pedagogical methods (Question

Text

Video

Quiz


Research questions
Research Questions are fostered by the evolution of technology and pedagogical methods (

  • What are the key technology integration terms that teacher education major students should understand?

  • Is there a difference in students' performance on a recognition and a comprehension test of technology integration terms based on the instructional strategy they experience (Text alone; Text and Video; Text, Video, and Engagement Question)?

  • Is there a difference in students' performance on a recognition and a comprehension test of technology integration terms based on the multimedia instructional strategy they experience (Text alone, Text+ Video, Text + Video +Engagement Question) after controlling for the frequencies of viewing the terms?


  • Is there a relationship between students’ majors and their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms?

  • Is there a relationship between students’ technology expertise and their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms?

  • Is there a difference in the way that native and non-native learners benefit from instructional strategies designed to advance comprehension and vocabulary acquisition?


The hypotheses of the study
The Hypotheses of the their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration termsStudy

  • Students will perform differently on a recognition and a comprehension test of technology integration terms depending upon the multimedia instructional strategy they experience (Text alone), (Text and Video), and (Text , Video, and Engagement Question).

  • Students will perform differently on a recognition and a comprehension test of technology integration terms depending upon the multimedia instructional strategy they experience (Text alone), (Text + Video), and (Text + Video + Engagement Question) after controlling for the frequencies of viewing the terms.

  • There is no relationship between students’ majors and their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms.

  • There is no relationship between students’ technology expertise and their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms.

  • There is no difference between native and non-native learners on their performance on the recognition and comprehension test.


The importance of the study
The Importance of the Study their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms

  • There are many studies that have investigated the effect of using different combinations of multimedia on vocabulary acquisition, but the results of these studies are inconsistent (Alghafli, 2011).

  • Learning abstracts terms with multimedia is an area that needs to be investigated (Mohsen, 20110, and this study targets abstract terms that describe relative complex concepts that require educators to understand the critical capacity of the technology and effective ways to integrate this technology in education.


The importance of the study1
The Importance of the Study their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms

  • Many researchers suggest that future research should consider learning abstract terms using different multimedia (Chun &Plass, 1996; Alghafli, 2011).

  • This study will be also useful for teacher preparation programs since it will identify the most critical terms that need to be taught in technology integration courses.


Literature review
Literature Review their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms

Theoretical Framework for the Study

  • The Dual-Coding Theory

    • People learn better when materials are presented in both verbal and visual modes (Paivio, 1986).

  • The Generative Theory of Multimedia Learning

    • Learners are more likely to recall specific information when they have verbal and visual formats available at the same time rather than having only one format ( Mayer,1997) .

    • The contiguity principle: people learn better when the word and the picture are presented contiguously, and learners engage in active learning when the narration is aligned with them (Mayer & Anderson, 1992).


Theoretical framework for the study
Theoretical Framework for the their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration termsStudy

  • The Cognitive Load Theory

    • Short-term memory has limitation in processing received information (Miller, 1956).

    • Learning happens best when considering the limitation of human cognitive (Sweller, 1988).

  • Constructivist theory

    • “By asking students about what they have learned in the very early stages, they have the opportunity to reflect upon their understanding of the new thing they have just learned. It’s possible that misunderstandings can occur or there might be some confusion in the minds of the learners because what they have just learned does not “fit” with their prior experience.” (Kelly, 2005)


Related studies
Related studies their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms

  • Technology integration: technology has a long history serving education(Briggs & Burke, 2009)

  • Online glosses and vocabulary learning

    • Positive impact on vocabulary acquisition (Chun &Plass1996; Al-Seghayer, 200; Yanguas,2009 )

  • Technology expertise

    • Wittrok (1989) stated that learners existing knowledge about a topic can influenced by their sensory inputs.

  • Frequency of term views

    • Coady(1993) pointed out that the probability of learning a word at the first exposure ranges from 5% to 15%.


Methodology
Methodology their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms

Variables:

  • Independent Variable

    • Multimedia Instructional strategy (Text, Text and Video, Text, Video+and Engagement Question)

  • Dependent Variable

    • Scores on recognition test: Scores on iItems-Matching test

    • Scores on comprehension: multiple-choice test


  • Participants their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms

    • Two categories of participants

      students who are taking technology integration classes

      ELPS 301, ELPS 302, and ELPS 760

    • Non-technology integration students


Terms selections
Terms Selections their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms

  • As opposed to covering technical or vendor terms (e.g. algorithm, bandwidth apache or blackboard) The terms that are more valuable in this study are the ones that can help educators understand new strategies for integrating technology in  teaching and learning (e.g. WebQuest, Digital Storytelling, ePortfolio). 


Terms selections1
Terms Selections their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms

  • William James (1899) states that "verbal material is, on whole, the handiest and most useful material in which thinking can be carried on. Abstract conceptions are far and away the most economical instruments of though, and abstract conceptions are fixed and incarnated for us in words“


Terms selections2
Terms Selections their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms

  • Phase1: terms that describe how technology can be integrated in teaching and learning were collected. The terms were selected based on their utilities, practical value and their application to the field of education

  • Phase2: The list of the terms was reviewed by students in an educational technology seminar and more terms were added to the list.


Terms selections3
Terms Selections their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms

Phase 3: a survey that contains all these terms was created and sent to experts for adding or deleting terms


Terms selections4
Terms Selections their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms


Terms selections5
Terms Selections their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms

  • Phase 4: the list then was revised by 2 experts in the field of Educational Technology at KU


Terms selections6
Terms Selections their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms

Phase 5: another survey was developed with the modifications that these experts have made and the final list of terms was sent to experts to rate those terms from 1 Unimportant to 10 Very important.


Terms selections7
Terms Selections their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms


Terms definition
Terms Definition their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms

  • Definitions were selected from accepted resources in educational technology, and modifications were made to increase their readability and at the same time preserve their accuracy. The definitions will be reviewed by experts to make sure that they are accurate.


Materials
Materials their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms

  • The selection of pictures for each technology integration term.

    • Each term will be divided into its defining attributes, and then each attribute will be visualized.

    • Images will be identified from different resources to correspond to each attribute

    • Images will be rated for accurate representation by a group of raters


Materials1
Materials their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms

  • Video creation

    • Each video consists of pictures representing the defining attributes of the term along with a caption and narration. The video is based on the contiguity principle that states people learn better when the word and the picture are presented contiguously, and learners engage in active learning when the narration is aligned with them (Mayer & Anderson, 1992).


Procedures
Procedures their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms

  • The study will take place in the School of Education computer lab.

  • Two kinds of strategies

    • The first strategy that focuses on participants who are taking technology integration classes is to assign randomly the technology integration classes (ELPS 301, ELPS 302, and ELPS 760) to the three multimedia instructional strategies. Each class will be assigned to a different multimedia instructional strategy.


Procedures1
Procedures their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms

  • Each of the three classes has its own website. The website will have a lesson and each lesson will include glossed technology integration terms. Students will view the lessons and the glossed terms associated with them.


Procedures2
Procedures their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms

  • The second strategy for conducting this study focuses on participants who are not enrolled in any technology integration class. The researcher will reserve the lab for a specific time, and will ask the volunteers who agree to participate in this study to come in the allotted time.


Procedures3
Procedures their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms

  • Alist of random numbers will be used to assign participants to one of the three-multimedia instructional strategies:

    • Text only.

    • Text and Video.

    • Text, Video, and Engagement Question.


Procedures4
Procedures their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms

  • The computers will be labeled according to these three strategies .

  • When participants enter the computer lab, they will be pick a number, each number will correspond to one of the three possible strategies.

  • Aconsent form will be distributed that describes the purpose of the study and participants will be asked to sign the form if they agree to participate.

  • Participants will view a list terms online, when they click a term, a pop-up window will appear with the definition based on the condition the students are assigned to.


Data collection instruments
Data Collection: their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration termsInstruments

  • Demographic information:

    • Gender

    • Native language

    • Academic status

    • Major


Demographic information
Demographic Information their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms


Technology expertise survey
Technology their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration termsExpertise Survey


Recognition t est
Recognition their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration termsTest

  • Match each term in the term column with its definition on the definitions column. Place your answer in the blank to the right of each term. Each answer can be used only once.


Comprehension test
Comprehension their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration termsTest

  • John is a science teacher regularly integrates technology in his teaching. He decided to teach his students about global warming and begins by having his students search for and evaluate web sites on global warming.   John also asks his students to collect and analyze changes in temperature data in their region.  He then asked his students to post their findings, analysis and conclusions on a website.  Students also constructed media presentations concerning trends and opinions about global warming.

    This activity can best be described as a/an ________ activity.

    • webquest

    • keypals

    • eAppearance

    • impersonation


Attitudes toward technology integration
Attitudes toward technology integration their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms


Research questions1
Research Questions their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms

  • What are the key technology integration terms that teacher education major students should understand?

  • Is there a difference in students' performance on a recognition and a comprehension test of technology integration terms based on the multimedia instructional strategy they experience (Text alone; Text and Video; Text, Video, and Engagement Question)?

  • Is there a difference in students' performance on a recognition and a comprehension test of technology integration terms based on the multimedia instructional strategy they experience (Text alone, Text+ Video, Text + Video +Engagement Question) after controlling for the frequencies of viewing the terms?


  • Is there a relationship between students’ majors and their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms?

  • Is there a relationship between students’ technology expertise and their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms?

  • Is there a difference in the way that native and non-native learners benefit from instructional strategies designed to advance comprehension and vocabulary acquisition?


Question 1
Question 1 their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms

  • Adescriptive statistic (mean) will used to determine the terms that are most critical. The mean for each term will be computed to see which term has the highest mean.


Question 2
Question 2 their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms

  • Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) will be conducted to measure the effect of three different multimedia instructional strategies (text; text and video; text, video, and engagement question) on students’ recognition and comprehension of technology integration terms.


Question 3
Question 3 their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms

  • For question three, a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) will be conducted to measure the effect of three different multimedia instructional strategies (text; text and video; text, video, and engagement question) on students’ recognition and comprehension of technology integration terms after controlling for the technology frequencies of viewing each term.


Question 4
Question 4 their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms

  • Research question four is concerned with the relationship between students’ majors and recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) will be conducted to answer this question.


Question 5
Question 5 their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms

  • Finally, a correlation analyses will be conducted to measure the relationship between students’ technology expertise and their performance on the tests.


Limitation
Limitation their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms

  • One limitation of this study is the effect of language on understanding the meaning of terms. People who have good background knowledge in English might be able to identify the meaning of some terms such as asynchronous learning, or synchronous learning without using the intervention.

  • Also, this study will only focus on short-term retention. The impact of the multimedia instructional strategy on long-term retention needs to be investigated.

  • Participant learning style.


Implication
Implication their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms

  • The study might have a pedagogical implication about the effective way to teach non-concrete terms.


References
References their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms

  • ALGhafli, M. (2011). The effect of mediated glosses on vocabulary retention and reading comprehension with English Language Learners in Saudi Arabia. Doctoral Dissertation, The University of Kansas .

  • Al-Seghayer, K. (2001). The effect of multimedia annotation modes on L2 vocabulary acquisition: A comparative study. Language Learning & Technology, 5, 202-232.

  • Anohina, A. (2005). Analysis of the terminology used in the field of virtual learning. Educational Technology & Society 91-102.

  • Briggs, A., & Burke, P. (2009). A social history of the media .Malden,MA:: Polity.

  • Chayko, M. (2008). Portable communities: The social dynamics of online and mobile connectedness. SUNY: Albany.

  • Chun, D. M., & Plass, J. L. (1996). Effects of multimedia annotations on vocabulary acquisition. The Modern Language Journal, 80, 183-198.

  • Clark, J. M., & Paivio, A. (1991). Dual-coding theory and education. Educational Psychology Review, 3(3), 149-210.


  • Coady their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms, J. (1993). Research on ESL/EFL vocabulary acquisition: Putting it in context. In T. Huckin, M. Haynes, & J. Coady (Eds.). Second language reading and vocabulary learning 3-23 Nor- wood, NJ: Ablex Publishing.

  • Dias, L. B. (1999). Integrating technology: Some things you should know. Learning & Leading with Technology 10-13,21.

  • Ess, C. (2009). Digital media ethics. . Malden, MA: Polity.

  • Fulton, K., Glenn, A. D., & Valdez, G. (2004). National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future. 19.

  • Ito, M. E. (2010). Hanging out, messing around, and geeking out: Kids living and learning with new media. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

  • James, W. (2008). Talks to teachers on psychology: & to students on some of life's ideals. Rockville: Arc Manor.

  • Jenkins, H. (2008). Convergence culture: Where old and new media collide. New York: New York University.

  • Johnson, J. (2003). Distance education: The complete guide to design, delivery, and improvement. Teachers College Press.


  • Kelly, D. (2005). their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration termsDo you know what your students are learning? And do you care? (M. M. O'Neill, Editor, & All Ireland Society for Higher Education (AISHE)) Retrieved 4 2, 2012, from AISHE: http://www.aishe.org/readings/2005-1/kelly-Do_you_know_what_your_students_are_learning.html

  • Lessard-Clouston, M. (2005). Learning and use of specialized vocabulary among native and non_native English-speaking graduate students of theology. (Doctoral Dissertation), University of Toronto .

  • Mayer, R. E. (1997). Multimedia learning: Are we asking the right question? Educational Psychology , 32, 1-19.

  • Mayer, R. E., & Anderson, R. B. (1992). The instructive animation: Helping students build connections between words and pictures in multimedia learning. Journal of Educational Psychology 84, 444-452.

  • Mayer, R. (2005). The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Miller, G. A. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review , 63, 81-97.

  • Mohsen, M. A., & Balakumar, M. (2011). A review of multimedia glosses and their effects on L2 vocabulary acquisition in CALL Literature. ReCall , 135-159.


  • Paivio their recognition and comprehension of the technology integration terms, A. (1986). Mental representations. New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Serdiukov, P. C. (2000). Thesaurus of Educational Technology Terms and Their Collocations. Reference Materials-Vocabularies/Classifications , 20.

  • Simsek, N. (2005). Perceptions and Opinions of Educational Technologists Related to Educational Technology. Educational Technology & Society, 8 (4), 178-190.

  • Sweller, J. (1988). Cognitive load during problem solving: Effects on learning. Cognitive Science , 12, 257-285.

  • Wittrock, M. C. (1974). Generative processes of comprehension. Educational Psychologist, , 24, 345-376.

  • Wittrock, M. C. (1989). Generative processes of comprehension. Educational Psychologist, , 24, 345-376.

  • Wittrock, M. C. (1974). Learning as a generative process. Educational Psychologist , 11, 87-95.

  • Yanguas, I. (2009). Multimedia glosses and their effect on L2 text comprehension and vocabulary learning. Language Learning and Technology , 13(2), 48-67.

  • Yoshii, M., & Flaitz, J. (2002). Second language incidental vocabulary retention: The effect of picture and annotation types. CALICO Journal , 20(1), 33-58.


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