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Production Operations Management. Process Technology & Layout U. Akinc. Various Technologies. Information Technology Product Technology Process Technology. Reasons for Technology. Some of the competitive priorities . Improved Product and Service Quality Lower Cost

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production operations management

Production Operations Management

Process Technology &

Layout

U. Akinc

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various technologies
Various Technologies
  • Information Technology
  • Product Technology
  • Process Technology

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reasons for technology
Reasons for Technology

Some of the competitive priorities

  • Improved Product and Service Quality
  • Lower Cost
  • Increased Responsiveness to Market
  • Increased Responsiveness to Customer
  • Safety

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barriers to implementation of technology
Barriers to Implementation of Technology
  • Difficulty in Financial Justification
  • Lack of Understanding by Management
  • Concern for the Impact of Technology on the Human Resources

traditional ROI based capital budgeting can’t consider non-financial benefits

Resistance to change, having to learn “another way” of doing things

Fear of loss of jobs due to automation

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information and communication technologies
Information and Communication Technologies
  • Electronic Data Interchange
  • Bar Coding (UPC)
  • Electronic Pagers
  • Cellular Telephones
  • Internet/e-Mail
  • Intranet

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bar code technology
Bar Code Technology
  • Speeds Data Entry
  • Increases Data Accuracy
  • Reduces Material Handling Labor
  • Easily Monitors Labor Efficiency

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process technology
Process Technology
  • Technology: Manual, Automated or Mental Processes that are Used to Transform Inputs Into Products and Services
  • Advanced Manufacturing Technology or Automation: Substitution of Machinesfor Human Physical and mental work.
  • Key to usage of automation: Repeatability

A task that is performed in large number of repetitions is more apt to be automated

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automation and operations focus
Automation and Operations Focus

Line-Flow = flow-shop

  • Product Focus:

High Volume Standard Products imply High Degree of Repeatability

      • Automation is natural
  • Process Focus:

Low Volumes of a wide variety of product and services imply limited repeatability

      • Automation is more challenging

In the form of fixed automation

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fixed automation
Fixed Automation

Automation of the processes and transfer of parts among stations. Characterized by:

  • High set up cost
  • Rigid Capabilities
  • Extreme efficiency

Examples:

  • Assembly Lines
  • Transfer Lines
  • Process industries (e.g., petro-chemicals)

Sometimes referred to as Detroit type automation

Machines that are linked with automatic materials handling

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flexible automation
Flexible Automation

Automatic Processes that can be easily changed from one task to another. Characterized by:

  • Low set up costs
  • A range of capabilities
  • Reasonably Efficient

Example:

  • Job Shop

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group technology
Group Technology

Another Attempt to obtain the efficiency of product focus without giving up the flexibility of process focus

Elements of Group Technology:

  • Part Families based on commonality of
      • Processing Steps
      • Part Geometry
  • Manufacturing Cells: Arrangement of Equipment best suited for a family

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computer integrated manufacturing cim
Computer Integrated Manufacturing(CIM)

Integration of total manufacturing enterprise through the use of integrated systems and data communications coupled with new management philosophy that improve organizational and personnel efficiency. (SME)

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slide14
CIM

An Umbrella term to encompass the integration of:

  • Product Design/Engineering
  • Process Planning /Development
  • Manufacturing Operations
  • Production/Inventory Control

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components of cim
Components of CIM
  • 1. CAD:

Computer Assisted Design: Use of Computers in interactive engineering drawing, storage and manipulation of existing designs.

  • 2. CAM:

Computer Assisted Manufacture: Use of Computers to program, direct and control manufacturing equipment in the fabrication of parts.

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components of cim cont d
Components of CIM (cont’d)
  • 3. CAPP

Computer Assisted Process Planning: Selecting operations, their sequences, tools and material handling systems using interactive computer systems

  • 4. NC Machines

Numerically Controlled Machines:

Machines which take their instructions from a control device that can be programmed and reprogrammed in software

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components of cim cont d17
Components of CIM (cont’d)
  • 5.Robotics

Versatile, programmable devices capable of human like operations.

    • Used Mostly in:
      • Hazardous
      • Repetitive tasks
      • Handling Heavy Parts
    • Such as:
      • Spot welding
      • Inspection
      • Circuit board Assembly
      • Spray Painting

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slide18

A Multi-Axes Robot

Merlin1

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slide22

Gantry Robots work like “Etch-a-sketch”. Movement is on 3 linear axes (x,y,z) as opposed to rotational as in Merlin. This robot is installing the wind shield on a car

Gantry1

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components of cim cont d24
Components of CIM (cont’d)
  • 6. AGV

Automatically Guided Vehicles

  • 7. AS/RS

Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems

Please visit the link

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infrastructure of cim
Infrastructure of CIM

Use of integrated computer software for

  • Production Scheduling
  • Inventory Control
  • Capacity Planning
  • Shop Floor Control

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layout planning
Layout Planning
  • Selecting location for and transfer routes and means among work departments:
  • Traditional types:
    • Functional (Process Focus)
    • Line Flow (Product focus)
    • Fixed Position (Project)
  • Modern
    • Group Technology

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functional layout
Functional Layout

Most appropriate for process focus

Turning

Packing

Gluing

Painting

Sanding

Planing

Drilling

Cutting

Resources are organized into functional departments

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line flow layout
Line Flow Layout

Most appropriate for Product Focus

A

E

B

C

B

D

E

A

C

E

D

A

B

B

C

Product flows through processes A-E

in a sequence dictated by the assembly

requirements of the product.

D

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slide30

Manufacturing Cells in

Group Technology

Cell A

Refer back to slide number 12: Group Technology. Here the departments are arranged to produce families of similar parts efficiently

Cell B

Planing

Painting

Cell C

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product process matrix

Product Variety and Volume

Product Process Matrix

Many

Products-

Low

Volume

Several

Products-

High

Volume

One

Product-

Very High

Volume

Low

Volume-

Unique

No Flow

Project

Identified Process Pattern

Job Shop

Jumbled Flow

Mixed with

Dominant Flows

Batch

Assembly

Line

Line Flow

Continuous

or Automated

Continuous

Process

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