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Production Operations Management. Process Technology & Layout U. Akinc. Various Technologies. Information Technology Product Technology Process Technology. Reasons for Technology. Some of the competitive priorities . Improved Product and Service Quality Lower Cost

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Production Operations Management

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Production operations management l.jpg

Production Operations Management

Process Technology &

Layout

U. Akinc

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Various technologies l.jpg

Various Technologies

  • Information Technology

  • Product Technology

  • Process Technology

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Reasons for Technology

Some of the competitive priorities

  • Improved Product and Service Quality

  • Lower Cost

  • Increased Responsiveness to Market

  • Increased Responsiveness to Customer

  • Safety

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Barriers to Implementation of Technology

  • Difficulty in Financial Justification

  • Lack of Understanding by Management

  • Concern for the Impact of Technology on the Human Resources

traditional ROI based capital budgeting can’t consider non-financial benefits

Resistance to change, having to learn “another way” of doing things

Fear of loss of jobs due to automation

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Information and Communication Technologies

  • Electronic Data Interchange

  • Bar Coding (UPC)

  • Electronic Pagers

  • Cellular Telephones

  • Internet/e-Mail

  • Intranet

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Bar Code Technology

  • Speeds Data Entry

  • Increases Data Accuracy

  • Reduces Material Handling Labor

  • Easily Monitors Labor Efficiency

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Process Technology

  • Technology: Manual, Automated or Mental Processes that are Used to Transform Inputs Into Products and Services

  • Advanced Manufacturing Technology or Automation: Substitution of Machinesfor Human Physical and mental work.

  • Key to usage of automation: Repeatability

A task that is performed in large number of repetitions is more apt to be automated

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Automation and Operations Focus

Line-Flow = flow-shop

  • Product Focus:

    High Volume Standard Products imply High Degree of Repeatability

    • Automation is natural

  • Process Focus:

    Low Volumes of a wide variety of product and services imply limited repeatability

    • Automation is more challenging

  • In the form of fixed automation

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    Fixed Automation

    Automation of the processes and transfer of parts among stations. Characterized by:

    • High set up cost

    • Rigid Capabilities

    • Extreme efficiency

      Examples:

    • Assembly Lines

    • Transfer Lines

    • Process industries (e.g., petro-chemicals)

    Sometimes referred to as Detroit type automation

    Machines that are linked with automatic materials handling

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    An example of fixed automation: Egg processing

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    Flexible Automation

    Automatic Processes that can be easily changed from one task to another. Characterized by:

    • Low set up costs

    • A range of capabilities

    • Reasonably Efficient

      Example:

    • Job Shop

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    Group Technology

    Another Attempt to obtain the efficiency of product focus without giving up the flexibility of process focus

    Elements of Group Technology:

    • Part Families based on commonality of

      • Processing Steps

      • Part Geometry

  • Manufacturing Cells: Arrangement of Equipment best suited for a family

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    Computer Integrated Manufacturing(CIM)

    Integration of total manufacturing enterprise through the use of integrated systems and data communications coupled with new management philosophy that improve organizational and personnel efficiency. (SME)

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    CIM

    An Umbrella term to encompass the integration of:

    • Product Design/Engineering

    • Process Planning /Development

    • Manufacturing Operations

    • Production/Inventory Control

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    Components of CIM

    • 1. CAD:

      Computer Assisted Design: Use of Computers in interactive engineering drawing, storage and manipulation of existing designs.

    • 2. CAM:

      Computer Assisted Manufacture: Use of Computers to program, direct and control manufacturing equipment in the fabrication of parts.

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    Components of CIM (cont’d)

    • 3. CAPP

      Computer Assisted Process Planning: Selecting operations, their sequences, tools and material handling systems using interactive computer systems

    • 4. NC Machines

      Numerically Controlled Machines:

      Machines which take their instructions from a control device that can be programmed and reprogrammed in software

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    Components of CIM (cont’d)

    • 5.Robotics

      Versatile, programmable devices capable of human like operations.

      • Used Mostly in:

        • Hazardous

        • Repetitive tasks

        • Handling Heavy Parts

      • Such as:

        • Spot welding

        • Inspection

        • Circuit board Assembly

        • Spray Painting

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    A Multi-Axes Robot

    Merlin1

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    A Merlin robot programmed to cut carpet to specified sizes

    Merlin2

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    A Merlin Robot spot welding

    Merlin3

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    Anatomy of a Merlin robot (has three degrees of freedom or axes)

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    Gantry Robots work like “Etch-a-sketch”. Movement is on 3 linear axes (x,y,z) as opposed to rotational as in Merlin. This robot is installing the wind shield on a car

    Gantry1

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    Another Gantry robot: cutting cloth

    Gantry2

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    Components of CIM (cont’d)

    • 6. AGV

      Automatically Guided Vehicles

    • 7. AS/RS

      Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems

    Please visit the link

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    Automatically Guided vehicle examples

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    Infrastructure of CIM

    Use of integrated computer software for

    • Production Scheduling

    • Inventory Control

    • Capacity Planning

    • Shop Floor Control

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    Layout Planning

    • Selecting location for and transfer routes and means among work departments:

    • Traditional types:

      • Functional (Process Focus)

      • Line Flow (Product focus)

      • Fixed Position (Project)

    • Modern

      • Group Technology

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    Functional Layout

    Most appropriate for process focus

    Turning

    Packing

    Gluing

    Painting

    Sanding

    Planing

    Drilling

    Cutting

    Resources are organized into functional departments

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    Line Flow Layout

    Most appropriate for Product Focus

    A

    E

    B

    C

    B

    D

    E

    A

    C

    E

    D

    A

    B

    B

    C

    Product flows through processes A-E

    in a sequence dictated by the assembly

    requirements of the product.

    D

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    Manufacturing Cells in

    Group Technology

    Cell A

    Refer back to slide number 12: Group Technology. Here the departments are arranged to produce families of similar parts efficiently

    Cell B

    Planing

    Painting

    Cell C

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    A Part Family

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    Manufacturing (GT) Cell

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    Product Variety and Volume

    Product Process Matrix

    Many

    Products-

    Low

    Volume

    Several

    Products-

    High

    Volume

    One

    Product-

    Very High

    Volume

    Low

    Volume-

    Unique

    No Flow

    Project

    Identified Process Pattern

    Job Shop

    Jumbled Flow

    Mixed with

    Dominant Flows

    Batch

    Assembly

    Line

    Line Flow

    Continuous

    or Automated

    Continuous

    Process

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