Disconnected youth and higher education
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Disconnected Youth and Higher Education . Definitions, Resources, Services, Practices, Barriers for Youth in Foster Care, State Wards, Guardianships and Unaccompanied Minors. Case Studies .

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Disconnected youth and higher education

Disconnected Youth and Higher Education

Definitions, Resources, Services, Practices, Barriers for Youth in Foster Care, State Wards, Guardianships and Unaccompanied Minors


Case studies

Case Studies

Case studies for group discussion about disconnected youth who want to receive financial aid to pay for higher education


Case study 1

Case Study 1

  • Tawanda is a 20 year old sophomore who was raised in foster care from the age of 6. She has been disconnected from her social worker since she graduated from high school and is not receiving any additional resources.

  • What barriers might she face?

  • What definition of disconnected youth best fits her?

  • What resources [support and financial] may be available to her?


Case study 2

Case study 2

  • Monique is an 18 year old incoming freshmen who was homeless during her Senior year in high school. She worked closely with Youth Link ( a homeless shelter for youth), but was not in foster care.

  • What definition of disconnected youth best fits her?

  • Whose financial information is required for the FAFSA?

  • What documentation might she need?


Case study 3

Case Study 3

  • Celeste is a junior in college. She was removed from her home and has lived in foster homes since she was in the 4th grade. She has been under the guardianship of human services since parental rights were terminated by the court due to a history of abuse in the home.

  • What documentation might she need?

  • What definition of disconnected youth best fits her?

  • What resources are available to her?


Case study 4

Case Study 4

  • Mike is an incoming freshman who has been living with his foster parents for 1 year. At the age of 17 they officially adopted him.

  • What resources are available to him?

  • Is his adoptive parent’s information required on the FAFSA?


Case study 5

Case Study 5

  • Jane is an incoming freshman who moved with her parent’s consent to Minnesota from Florida in order to obtain better economic and educational opportunities. She lives with her uncle and has attended a Minnesota high school for the past two years. Jane speaks with her parents occasionally and has only been back to visit once for a week over spring break just after moving to Minnesota.

  • Is Jane a disconnected youth? If yes (Address the other items)

  • What definition of disconnected youth best fits her?

  • What documentation might she need?

  • What resources are available for her?


Case study 6

Case study 6

  • Greg is 19 and has been attending college for a year. He is attempting to file his FAFSA for the new school year and tells the financial aid office that his mother was just sent to prison for the next year for committing fraud. He also states the last time he had contact with his father was at the trial of his mother’s fraud case. When asked by the aid administrator about his living situation Greg states he lives in a house he shares with several roommates. He used his mother’s information on his previous years FAFSA application.

  • Is Greg a disconnected youth? If yes (Address the other items)

  • What definition of disconnected youth best fits Greg?

  • What documentation might Greg need?

  • What resources are available for Greg?


Case study 7

Case study 7

  • Maria is an 18 year old incoming freshmen. Her mother is deceased and her father was deported to Columbia when she was 8. She is an American Citizen and was raised by her siblings (the oldest of who was 20 at the time their father was deported). She has no social worker.

  • What definition of disconnected youth best fits her?

  • What documentation might she need?

  • What resources are available to her?


Case study 8

Case Study 8

  • Jon and Nils are incoming freshmen and Eastern European immigrants with green cards. They have been in the U.S. 4 years, attended and graduated from a Minnesota high school, and lived with their uncle in suburban Minneapolis since they were 14. Their parents are in New York, but Jon and Nils have never lived there.

  • What definition of disconnected youth best fits her?

  • Whose financial information is required for the FAFSA?

  • What documentation might they need?


Scope of foster youth in higher education

Scope of Foster Youth in Higher Education

  • Over 500,000 children and Youth are in foster care in the United States

  • Over 20,000 young adults age out of state foster care systems annually.

  • 70 Percent foster youth ASPIRE to attend college

  • 7 to 13 percent of foster youth enroll in Post secondary education

  • Approximately 2 percent earn bachelor degrees

  • 7 percent earn a Certificate or AA degree


Minnesota foster youth in higher education working group

Minnesota Foster Youth in Higher Education Working Group

  • Genesis

  • Meeting summer 2010 convened by U of MN Twin cities financial aid/TRIO/Student Support Services-including state and county human services, community and secondary education agencies.

  • Evolved into ongoing broad based multi-sector working group

  • Goal- Improve coordination and communication, reduce barriers to better serve foster youth in higher education

  • Leadership- Minnesota Minority Education Partnership, U of MN Twin Cities TRIO and student support services, U of MN TC College of education and Human Development/School of Social Work and Minnesota Department of Human Services Adolescent Services unit


Minnesota foster youth in higher education working group1

Minnesota Foster Youth in Higher Education Working Group

  • Participants, Hennepin/Ramsey Counties Human Services, St. Paul Public Schools, Lutheran Social Services, MN Office of Higher Education, Itasca County Community Development, YWCA, foster parents, Indian Child Welfare, MN TRIO Programs, Community Education volunteers, GustavusAdolphus Student Financial Aid, College of Education and Human Development Center for Advanced Studies in Child Welfare- school of social work

  • Working Groups

    -Research

    -Training

    -Communications and Collaboration

    -Outreach and Awareness


Increasing emphasis on foster youth and higher education

Increasing Emphasis on Foster Youth and Higher Education

  • McKinney/Vento Homeless Assistance Act of 1987 as amended in 2002

    • State educational services for homeless and youth at risk of being homeless

  • 2003 Education and Training Voucher

    Provides funds to foster care youth to attend post-secondary education

  • 2008 Reauthorization of the Federal Higher Education Act of 1965-Title IV

    -FAFSA

    -TRIO Subpart


Increasing emphasis on foster youth and higher education1

Increasing Emphasis on Foster Youth and Higher Education

  • 2008 Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act

    • Federal matching payments for continuing foster care from age 18-21

    • Students adopted at age 13 through age 17 parental information not needed on the FAFSA

  • January 14, 2013 Uninterrupted Scholars Act (Public Law 112-278)

    • Amends the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) to allow child welfare agencies and educational institutions to share information when working on behalf of students in foster care. Full bill can be found at www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-112publ278/pdf/PLAW-112publ278.pdf


Foster youth and student financial aid

Foster Youth and Student Financial Aid

  • Higher Education Act Amendments of 2008

    • Added Independent Student Status Eligibility for students at age 13 who have both parents deceased, in foster care or made a ward of the court

    • Students who are deemed emancipated minors by a court in the state of legal residence before attaining the age of majority

    • Students who were placed in legal guardianship by a court in their state of legal residence before attaining the age of majority


Foster youth and student financial aid1

Foster Youth and Student Financial Aid

  • Higher Education Act Amendments of 2008

  • Added early public awareness language of financial aid eligibility to begin in 2010 in coordination with:

    • States, secondary schools, organizations providing services to homeless

    • Federal early intervention and outreach programs funded under title IV (TRIO, Upward Bound, Educational Talent Search, Educational Opportunity programs and GEAR UP)


How is foster care defined

How is Foster Care Defined

  • Minnesota Statute 206c.007 subdivision 18 defines foster care as:

    • 24 hour substitute care from children placed away from their parents or guardian and for whom a responsible social services agency has placement and care responsibility

  • Foster care includes, but is not limited to:

    • Foster family homes, foster homes of relatives, group homes, emergency shelters, residential facilities, child care institutions and pre-adoptive homes

  • Foster care does not include placement in:

    • Hospitals, inpatient chemical dependency treatment facilities, facilities for delinquent children, corrections facilities that do not meet title IV-E determined by the commissioner, forestry camps or jails


Resources for foster youth in higher education

Resources for Foster Youth in Higher Education

  • Education/Training Vouchers up to $5’000 a year in Minnesota

  • Extended Foster Care Financial Support up to $800 a month in Minnesota

  • Independent Status on the Free Application for Federal Student Aid

  • Tuition waiver for students who are/were wards of the state in Minnesota


Wards of the state tuition waiver

Wards of the state tuition waiver

  • Students who are defined as wards of the state of Minnesota are eligible for a tuition waiver. In 1997 the state legislature gave the authority to the presidents of MNSCU institutions to waive tuition for students who were under the guardianship of the commissioner of human services before age 18. The president may continue to waive tuition until age 21 and older even when no longer a ward of the state. A survey in 2012 by the U of MN Center for Advanced Studies in Child Welfare found some in MNSCU unaware of the waiver possibility.

  • The University of Minnesota uses the waiver as well


Resources for foster youth in higher education1

Resources for Foster Youth in Higher Education

Eligible for TRIO Services: Precollege

  • Access and outreach through TRIO Upward Bound, Educational Talent Search and Educational Opportunity Centers

    • Career, personal and academic counseling

    • College visits and application assistance

    • FAFSA and scholarship application assistance

    • Tutoring and academic support and enrichment classes


Resources for foster youth in higher education continued

Resources for Foster Youth in Higher Education Continued

  • College support through TRIO Student Support Services

    • Academic, financial, major advising

    • Academic support and tutoring

    • Advocacy with the college system

    • Community building and cultural events

    • Services designed for homeless and foster youth

      • Temporary housing over breaks


Challenges to identifying foster youth in higher education

Challenges to identifying Foster Youth in Higher Education

  • FAFSA ‘skip logic’

  • If the student checks yes to has dependents, children or married, the student will NOT SEE the question about being in foster care since turning age 13

  • If the student says yes to “I was in foster care since turning age 13” they will not see questions about being homeless, emancipated minor or legal guardianship


Difficulty in identifying foster youth in higher education continued

Difficulty in identifying Foster Youth in Higher Education Continued

Admissions Applications

  • On all Washington State University Applications: Ask about foster care

  • Financial aid or admission supplements

    • U of MN admissions application check box: I have been in foster care, a state ward, or under the legal custody of a relative since my sixteenth birthday.

  • TRIO/SSS applications

    • UMN and Minneapolis Community and Tech College now has added a question about foster care


Challenges coordination and communication

Challenges Coordination and Communication

  • No formal communication channels between human services and financial aid offices

    • Student has to self identify

  • No formal communications channels between secondary homeless services and financial aid offices

    • Student may be aged out of foster care and be homeless. Student still must self identify

  • No campus single point of contact

    • Where should the information go to what office and what people

  • Unaccompanied Minors/Homeless Youth

    • High School must be aware to provide documentation

  • There may be different documentation expectations from college to college


Challenges continued

Challenges continued

  • How do foster/homeless youth deal with housing over breaks? This will be different from school to school and if they offer on campus housing or not.

  • What other services do we as FAA’s need to be aware of in our communities to assist foster or homeless youth?

    • Shelter

    • Health care

    • Food

    • Clothing


Minnesota foster youth and education training vouchers

Minnesota Foster Youth and Education Training Vouchers

  • 2012-2013 Minnesota has 198 foster youth attending college and receiving ETV

  • Minnesota ETV recipients attend 70 different Post Secondary Education institutions:

    • ETV recipients attend 58 different schools in MN and 12 in other states

    • ETV recipients attend all levels from cosmetology schools through two and four year public and private colleges and the University of Minnesota


Minnesota foster youth and education training vouchers1

Minnesota Foster Youth and Education Training Vouchers

  • ETV recipients in Minnesota Private Colleges (16 students in 2012-2013)

    • Augsburg 8 students (most in MN private colleges)

    • Minneapolis Community and Technical College 15 students (most in MN )

  • MN state Colleges and Universities-Four Year Colleges (16 students in 2012-2013)

  • University of Minnesota (13 students in 2012-2013)

    • Twin Cities 7 (most in UM campuses)


Foster youth and trio

Foster Youth and TRIO

  • Higher Education Act Amendments of 2008

  • Add foster youth to eligibility language for UB, ETS, EOC and SSS:

    • Foster care youth including youth in foster care after age 13 or are aging out of foster care

    • Homeless Children and Youth as defined in McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act

  • Added permissible services to student support services:

    • Securing temporary housing during breaks

    • Services specially designed for homeless and foster youth


What other states are doing

What other states are doing

  • Washington state has a law mandating coordination and providing financial assistance

  • Iowa Preparation for Adult Living Program

    • http://www.dhs.state.ia.us/docs/2012-Offer-401-HHS-008-Successful-Transition-to-Adulthood-Narrative.pdf

  • Wisconsin-unclear if approved extended foster care due to budget issues


Additional information

Additional Information

  • http://www.chapinhall.org/sites/default/files/publications/Midwest_IB2_Homelessness.pdf

  • Minnesota ETV website: http://mn.gov/dhs/, click on People We Serve, Children and Families, Services, Adolescent services, Education and training vouchers for more information on the ETV program and the changes

  • http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED503289.pdf

    • Article summarizes interviews done by Casey Family Programs with 8 former foster youth who recently graduated from college and discusses 15 major themes related to college success and life outlook


References

References

  • Allen, Bonner & Greenan, L. (1988). Federal legislative support for independent living. Child Welfare, 67, 19–32.

  • Ammerman, S., Ensign, J., Kirzner, R., Meininger, E., Tornabene, M., Warf, C. Zerger, S., & Post, P. (2004). Homeless young adults ages 18–24: Examining service delivery adaptations. Nashville, TN: National Health Care for the Homeless Council.

  • Barth, R. (1990). On their own: The youth after foster care. Child and Adolescent Social Work, 7, 419–440.

  • Brandford, C., & English, D. (2004). Foster youth transition to independence study. Seattle: Office of Children’s Administration Research, Washington Department of Social and Health Services.

  • Casey Family Services. (2006). Families for life: Addressing the needs of older children and youth in foster care: Fact sheet one: Defining family permanence. New Haven, CT: Author.

  • Cook, R., Fleishman, E., & Grimes, V. (1991). A national evaluation of title IV-E foster care independent living programs for youth: Phase 2, final report (Vol. 1). Rockville, MD: Westat.

  • Chapin Hall at the University of ChicagoCourtney, M. E., & Dworsky, A. (2006). Early outcomes for young people transitioning from out-of-home care in the U.S.A. Child and Family Social Work, 11, 209–219.

  • Courtney, M.E, Dworsky, A., Lee, J.S., & Rapp, M.(2010).

  • Midwest Evaluation of the Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth: Outcomes at Ages 23 and 24. Chicago: Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago.

  • Courtney, M., Dworsky, A., Ruth, A., Keller, T., Havlicek, J., & Bost, J. (2005). Midwest evaluation of the adult functioning of former foster youth: Outcomes age 19. Chicago: Chapin Hall Center for Children University of Chicago.

  • Courtney, M. E., Piliavin, I., Grogan-Kaylor, A., & Nesmith, A. (2001). Foster youth transitions to adulthood: A longitudinal view of youth leaving care. Child Welfare, 80(6), 685–717.

  • Dworsky, A., & Courtney, M. (2009). Homelessness and the transition from foster care to adulthood. Child Welfare, 88(4), 23–56.

  • Dworsky, A., & Havlicek, J. (2008). Review of state policies and programs to support young people transitioning out of foster care. Chicago, IL: Chapin Hall Center for Children at the University of Chicago.

  • Feldmann, J., & Middleman A. (2003). Homeless adolescents: common clinical concerns. Seminars in Pediatric Infectious Disease, 14(1), 6–11.

  • Fields, J. (2003). America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003. Current Population Reports, P20-553. U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC.

  • Fowler, P. J., Toro, P. A., Tompsett, C. J., & Hobden, K. (2006). Youth aging out of foster care in southeast Michigan: A follow-up. Paper presented to the Michigan Department of Human Services, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI.

  • Goldscheider, F., & Goldscheider, C. (1999). The changing transition to adulthood: Leaving and returning home. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.


References1

References

  • Halley, M., & English, A. (2008). Health care for homeless youth: Policy options for improving access. San Francisco: Center for Adolescent Health & the Law and the Public Policy Analysis and Education Center for Middle Childhood, Adolescent and Young Adult Health (Policy Center) at the University of California San Francisco (UCSF).

  • Pecora, P., Kessler, R., Williams, J., O’Brien, K., Downs, A. C., English, D., White, J., Hiripi, E., White, C., Wiggins, T., & Holmes, K. (2005). Improving family foster care: Findings from the Northwest Foster Care Alumni Study. Seattle: Casey Family Programs.

  • Pecora, P., Williams, J., Kessler, R., Downs, A. C., O’Brien, K., Hiripi, E., & Morello, S. (2003). Assessing the effects of foster care: Early results from the Casey National Alumni Study. Seattle: Casey Family Programs.

  • Reilly, T. (2001). Transition from care: The status and outcome of youth who have ‘aged out’ of the foster care system in Clark County, Nevada. Las Vegas: Nevada KIDS COUNT.

  • Schoeni, R., & Ross, K. (2005). Material assistance received from families during the transition to adulthood. In R. Settersten, Jr., F. Furstenberg, Jr., & R. Rumbaut (Eds.), On the frontier of adulthood: Theory, research, and public policy (pp. 404–405). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • Settersten, R., Furstenberg, F. F., & Rumbaut, R. G. (Eds.) (2005). On the frontier of adulthood: Theory, research, and public policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • Toro, P. A., Dworsky, A., & Fowler, P. J. (2007). Homeless youth in the United States: Recent research findings and intervention approaches. 2007 National Symposium on Homeless Research Washington, DC: Office of the Assistant Secretary of Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the Office Policy, Development, and Research, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.

  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families. (2006)

  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth, and Families, Family and Youth Services Bureau. (2007). Promising strategies to end youth homelessness: Report to Congress. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families..

  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth, and Families, Children’s Bureau. (2009). AFCARS report #16: Preliminary estimates for FY 2008 as of October 2009. Washington, DC: Author.

  • Whitbeck, L., Hoyt, D. Yoder, K., Cauce, A., & Paradise, M. (2001). Deviant behavior and victimization among homeless and runaway adolescents. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 16, 1175–1204.


Where to go from here

Where to go from here

  • Keep up the GREAT work you all do to serve students !!

  • Develop strong relationships with your admissions, student support and or TRIO offices to help identify these students

  • Work with community leaders and partners to enhance community support services or help create them if needed

  • Find out what is working with your institution

  • Share your knowledge


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