Advanced methods and analysis for the learning and social sciences
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Advanced Methods and Analysis for the Learning and Social Sciences. PSY505 Spring term, 2012 April 9, 2012. Today’s Class. Missing Data and Imputation. Missing Data. Frequently, when collecting large amounts of data from diverse sources, there are missing values for some data sources.

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Advanced methods and analysis for the learning and social sciences

Advanced Methods and Analysis for the Learning and Social Sciences

PSY505Spring term, 2012

April 9, 2012


Today s class

Today’s Class

  • Missing Data and Imputation


Missing data

Missing Data

  • Frequently, when collecting large amounts of data from diverse sources, there are missing values for some data sources


Examples

Examples

  • It’s easy to think of examples; can anyone here give examples from your own current or past research or projects


Classes of missing data

Classes of missing data

  • Missing all data/“Unit nonresponse”

  • Missing all of one source of data

    • E.g. student did not fill out questionnaire but used tutor

  • Missing specific data/“Item nonresponse”

    • E.g. student did not answer one question on questionnaire

  • Subject dropout/attrition

    • Subject ceased to be part of population during study

      • E.g. student was suspended for a fight


What do we do

What do we do?


Case deletion

Case Deletion

  • Simply delete any case that has at least one missing value

  • Alternate form: Simply delete any case that is missing the dependent variable


Case deletion1

Case Deletion

  • In what situations might this be acceptable?

  • In what situations might this be unacceptable?

  • In what situations might this be practically impossible?


Case deletion2

Case Deletion

  • In what situations might this be acceptable?

    • Relatively little missing data in sample

    • Dependent variable missing, and journal unlikely to accept imputed dependent variable

    • Almost all data missing for case

      • Example: A student who is absent during entire usage of tutor

  • In what situations might this be unacceptable?

  • In what situations might this be practically impossible?


Case deletion3

Case Deletion

  • In what situations might this be acceptable?

  • In what situations might this be unacceptable?

    • Data loss appears to be non-random

      • Example: The students who fail to answer “How much marijuana do you smoke?” have lower GPA than the average student who does answer that question

    • Data loss is due to attrition, and you care about inference up until the point of the data loss

      • Student completes pre-test, tutor, and post-test, but not retention test

  • In what situations might this be practically impossible?


Case deletion4

Case Deletion

  • In what situations might this be acceptable?

  • In what situations might this be unacceptable?

  • In what situations might this be practically impossible?

    • Almost all students missing at least some data


Analysis by analysis case deletion

Analysis-by-Analysis Case Deletion

  • Common approach

  • Advantages?

  • Disadvantages?


Analysis by analysis case deletion1

Analysis-by-Analysis Case Deletion

  • Common approach

  • Advantages?

    • Every analysis involves all available data

  • Disadvantages?

    • Difficult to do omnibus or multivariate analyses

    • Are your analyses fully comparable to each other?


Mean substitution

Mean Substitution

  • Replace all missing data with the mean value for the data set

  • Mathematically equivalent: unitize all variables, and treat missing values as 0


Mean substitution1

Mean Substitution

  • Advantages?

  • Disadvantages?


Mean substitution2

Mean Substitution

  • Advantages?

    • Simple to Conduct

    • Essentially drops missing data from analysis without dropping case from analysis entirely

  • Disadvantages?

    • Distorts variances and correlations

    • May bias against significance in an over-conservative fashion


Distortion from mean substitution

Distortion From Mean Substitution

  • Imagine a sample where the true sample is that 50 out of 1000 students have smoked marijuana

  • GPA

  • Smokers: M=2.6, SD=0.5

  • Non-Smokers: M=3.3, SD=0.5


Distortion from mean substitution1

Distortion From Mean Substitution

  • However, 30 of the 50 smokers refuse to answer whether they smoke, and 20 of the 950 non-smokers refuse to answer

  • And the respondents who remain are fully representative

  • GPA

  • Smokers: M=2.6

  • Non-Smokers: M=3.3


Distortion from mean substitution2

Distortion From Mean Substitution

  • GPA

  • Smokers: M=2.6

  • Non-Smokers: M=3.3

  • Overall Average: M=3.285


Distortion from mean substitution3

Distortion From Mean Substitution

  • GPA

  • Smokers: M=2.6

  • Non-Smokers: M=3.3

  • Overall Average: M=3.285

  • Smokers (Mean Sub): M= 3.02

  • Non-Smokers (Mean Sub): M= 3.3


Mar and mnar

MAR and MNAR

  • “Missing At Random”

  • “Missing Not At Random”


Advanced methods and analysis for the learning and social sciences

MAR

  • Data is MAR if

  • R = Missing data

  • Ycom = Complete data set (if nothing missing)

  • Yobs = Observed data set


Advanced methods and analysis for the learning and social sciences

MAR

  • In other words

  • If values for R are not dependent on whether R is missing or not, the data is MAR


Mar and mnar1

MAR and MNAR

  • Are these MAR or MNAR?

  • Students who smoke marijuana are less likely to answer whether they smoke marijuana

  • Students who smoke marijuana are likely to lie and say they do not smoke marijuana

  • Some students don’t answer all questions out of laziness

  • Some data is not recorded due to server logging errors

  • Some students are not present for whole study due to suspension from school due to fighting


Mar and mnar2

MAR and MNAR

  • MAR-based estimation may often be reasonably robust to violation of MAR assumption(Graham et al., 2007; Collins et al., 2001)

  • Often difficult to verify for real data

    • In many cases, you don’t know why data is missing…


Mar assuming approaches

MAR-assuming approaches

  • Single Imputation

  • Multiple Imputation

  • Maximum Likelihood Estimation


Single imputation

Single Imputation

  • Replace all missing items with statistically plausible values and then conduct statistical analysis

  • Mean substitution is a simple form of single imputation


Single imputation1

Single Imputation

  • Relatively simple to conduct

  • Probably OK when limited missing data


Other single imputation procedures

Other Single Imputation Procedures


Other single imputation procedures1

Other Single Imputation Procedures

  • Hot-Deck Substitution: Replace each missing value with a value randomly drawn from other students (for the same variable)

  • Very conservative; biases strongly towards no effect by discarding any possible association for that value


Other single imputation procedures2

Other Single Imputation Procedures

  • Linear regression/classification:

  • For missing data for variable X

  • Build regressor or classifier predicting observed cases of variable X from all other variables

  • Substitute predictor of X for missing values


Other single imputation procedures3

Other Single Imputation Procedures

  • Linear regression/classification:

  • For missing data for variable X

  • Build regressor or classifier predicting observed cases of variable X from all other variables

  • Substitute predictor of X for missing values

  • Limitation: if you want to correlate X to other variables, this will increase the strength of correlation


Other single imputation procedures4

Other Single Imputation Procedures

  • Distribution-based linear regression/classification:

  • For missing data for variable X

  • Build regressor or classifier predicting observed cases of variable X from all other variables

  • Compute probability density function for X

    • Based on confidence interval if X normally distributed

  • Randomly draw from probability density function of each missing value

  • Limitation: A lot of work, still reduces data variance in undesirable fashions


Multiple imputation

Multiple Imputation

  • Conduct procedure similar to single imputation many times, creating many data sets

    • 10-20 times recommended by Schafer & Graham (2002)

  • Conduct meta-analysis across data sets, to determine both overall answer and degree of uncertainty


Multiple imputation procedure

Multiple Imputation Procedure

  • Several procedures – essentially extensions of single imputation procedures

  • One example


Multiple imputation procedure1

Multiple Imputation Procedure

  • Conduct linear regression/classification

  • For each data set

    • Add noise to each data point, drawn from a distribution which maps to the distribution of the original (non-missing) data set for that variable

    • Note: if original distribution is non-normal, use non-normal noise distribution


Maximum likelihood

Maximum Likelihood

  • Use expectation maximization to iterate between

  • Estimating the function to predict missing data, using both observed data and predictions of missing data

  • Predicting missing data


Maximum likelihood1

Maximum Likelihood

  • Limitations:

  • Do not account for noise and variance in observations as well as Multiple Imputation

  • Not very robust to departures from MAR


Mnar estimation

MNAR Estimation

  • Selection models

    • Predict missingness on a variable from other variables

    • Then attempt to predict missing cases using both the other variables, and the model of situations when the variable is missing


Reducing missing values

Reducing Missing Values

  • Of course, the best way to deal with missing values is to not have missing values in the first place

  • For more on this, please take PSY503!


Asgn 9

Asgn. 9

  • Students who completed Asgn. 9, please discuss your solutions

    • Christian

    • Mike Wixon

    • Zak


Wixon solution over fitting

Wixon Solution: Over-fitting?

  • Why might it be overfit?


Rogoff solution over fitting

Rogoff Solution: Over-fitting?

  • StandardizedExam =

  • 0.2396 * studentID +

  • -6.6658 * MathCareerInterest +

  • 26.919 * MathCourseInHS +

  • -12.6207


Now to compare the models of wixon versus rogoff

Now to compare the models ofWixon versus Rogoff

  • On a new test set with no missing data


Results r

Results (r)


Wait what

Wait, what?


Wait what1

Wait, what?

  • Correlation in test set between student ID and standardized exam score = -0.0636

  • But coefficient = 0.2396

  • So weighted value ranges from 0.2396 to 11.98, which was not enough to hurt prediction


Asgn 10

Asgn. 10

  • Questions?

  • Comments?


Next class

Next Class

  • Wednesday, April 11

  • 3pm-5pm

  • AK232

  • Power Analysis

  • Readings

  • Lachin, J.M. (1981) Introduction to Sample Size Determination and Power Analysis for Clinical Trials Controlled Clinical Trials,2,93-113.[pdf]

  • Cohen, J. (1992) A Power Primer. Psychological Bulletin , 112 (1), 155-159.

  • Assignments Due: None


The end

The End


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