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Температурна история. Процеси и реликти от ранния стадий. КМФ и КН обилия указват на РД епоха:.

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Температурна история

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3252856


3252856

:

, R(t) and T~ 1/R, - .


3252856

T :

, (i > H): :

Bose-Einstein

Fermi-Dirac:

T m<<T , .

g:

, dS=0

: R(t)~1/T

.


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10-35 s 1015GeV

EW

10-10 s100 GeV

QCD 10-5 s0.3 GeV

H 1 s

1 s 3 m 1 - 0.1 MeV

300 000 y 0.3 eV

~109 y

13.8 109 y 0.0003 eV ~ 3K


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T1 MeV

T= Te = T

, , .

T ~1 MeV

, .

Tdec(e) ~ 2 MeVTdec(,) ~ 3 MeV

T~me, Tn=(4/11)1/3 Tcmb

N = 3.046 3 .

T0~2.7

Tn 0~ 1.9 K.

n n=112 cm-3 ncmb =411 cm-3

- .


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, , ~Tn.

, , LSS. , , , .


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:

/


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- 2

.

3 :

eV , % o ,

( ).


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  • .

  • (10 KeV MeV)

  • D, He, Li

  • -

  • .

. 19461948 . .


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T~MeV

t~sec


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  • D ,

  • .

: ( ).

.

  • He - H II

  • Z.

Iocco et al. PR472, 1 (2009)

Z

Yp=0,25340,0083

D/H=(2.870.2)10-5

  • Li - Pop II (

  • Z<1/10 000 Z )


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D, He-3, He-4, Li-7

, 1 s 3 m,

1 - 0.1 MeV.

  • :

  • -

  • (., , )

  • n : 885.70.8; 878.50.8s (Serebrov et al. 2005)

(2). .

B~ 0.05.


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109 K

6x108 K

He

108 K

1x108 K

T

H

107 K

1.5x107 K

t

- Li . H He, C, O, Si Fe. - Fe SN -.

O

Si

C

He

Fe

H

  • :

  • 3

  • ..


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-

D o , c .

  • + D

WMAP=6.160.16 x 10-10 at 68% CL


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-

D o , c .

  • + D

WMAP=6.160.16 x 10-10 at 68% CL

  • ~0.05

  • (0.005),

  • - (0.3). .


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-

D o , c .

  • + D

WMAP=6.160.16 x 10-10 at 68% CL

  • ~0.05

  • (0.005),

  • - (0.3). .

?

?

?

?


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.

, . .

C. Danforth & M. Shull, ApJ, 2008

Hubble Space Telescope

(Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer)

28 -

4 ly .

?

MACHOS, BH,..


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?

,

:

b~ 10-18

~10-20 Mpc , .

- ?

?

?

-?

  • , ?

  • : , , .

  • , ?


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-

4

  • He-4 - (25%)

  • - (3-5 %)Y=0,2490,009

  • - (0.1% )

  • -

  • -

  • (n, N, sp,LA..)

Y=(H((g)),) = 0,24820,0007


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Y~0.013 Nff

  • Nff =3.71+0.47-0.45

    Neff ,

    , ,

    , , .

  • + LMA :

  • TR > 130 MeV,

  • s ,

    , , -4.


3252856

s

.

s ,

,

4 .

4 3%.

a s:

m2>10-6 eV2

  • 4 -

  • 2 o LMA LOW (1990, 1999)

  • .


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,

.

.

, .

  • 1940 , (McKellar 1941)

  • G. Gamov (1946) . - - Ralph Alpher Robert Herman 1948-50.

  • 1964 .

  • R. Dicke, P. Peebles, P. Roll, D. Wilkinson, (1964) Princeton University: .

  • 1964A.Penzias & R.Wilson . 1978

  • 1964 , .

  • (1983-84), COBE(1989-93) , . 2006 (G. Smoot, J.Mather)

    .


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  • T>3000 K :

  • .

  • T

    • . .

  • :

  • ,

  • ,

  • .

    • T~1/R(t)

    • T=3000 K : 380,000 y, z=1100 . -

    • . .

    • ~ 3 - .

  • H+ + e - = H

    - . .

    . .


    3252856

    T~3000

    t~380 000

    300 000 400 000 .


    3252856

    1964A.Penzias & R.Wilson

    -,

    .

    1978

    2.7 K

    (<1%)

    3 mK,

    Hydra Centaurus v=600 km/s.

    380 000 3000 .

    dT/T < 10-5

    1 mm

    >

    • (1983-84)

    • COBE(1989-93)

    • 13 4 K

      • 2006 (G. Smoot, J.Mather)

    • for theirdiscovery of the blackbodyform and anisotropy of the Cosmicmicrowave background radiation

    1992: dT/T 5.10-6

    = 2.728 K

    T= 2.725 0.001

    411cm-3

    - : , , , , ...


    3252856

    -

    2009

    Planck


    3252856

    COBE: T 10-5 = 2.725 K .

    • ( 0.1 10 mm) - 1 % .

    • = 2.725 0.002 K - 0.03% .

      WMAP: T= 2.725 0.001 K

      411/ cm3

      4.64 10-34 g/cm3

      - .


    3252856

    • , Hydra Centaurus v=600 km/s,

      dT/T = 10-3

      (Conklin 1969, Henry 1971, Corey and Wilkinson 1976 and Smoot, Gorenstein and Muller 1977 )

    • .

      , , .

      1970 10-2 10-4.

      1980: 10-5.

    1990

    1992 - COBE90, 53, 31.5 GHz (3.3, 5.7, 9.5 mm), .

    • .

    • .

    • .


    3252856

    WMAP(2001)

    COBE WMAP (Wilkinson MicrowaveAnisotropy Probe) 1 .

    , , WMAP - .

    .


    3252856

    WMAP+ 3yr TT power spectrum (Hinshaw et al. 2006)

    : , , , , . .


    3252856

    - , .

    .


    3252856

    : = 1 + k / H2R2

    ~ 380 000 . .

    .

    : ,

    :

    , !!

    SNIa

    -

    -

    • . SN .


    3252856

    Courtesy Wayne Hu http://background.uchicago.edu


    3252856

    z =1100

      • (, , )

      • (.)

    Courtesy Wayne Hu http://background.uchicago.edu


    3252856

    Courtesy Wayne Hu http://background.uchicago.edu


    3252856

    • Big Bang ,

    • ( )

    • ( , , susy, , )

    • , !

    • , , .


    3252856

    WMAP7

    96% ....!?

    • 4.6% (0.1%)

    • 23.3% (1.3%)

    • 72.1% (1.5%)

  • WMAP : , , .

  • ( ), .

    • 1%

    • 9.9 x 10-30 g/cm3 (5.9 p m3 )(2% )

    • 0.2

    • .

    • - -

    • 13.73

    • ,1% (0.12 . .)

    • WMAP7+H+BAO: 13.75+/- 0.11


    Wmap 7 january 26 2010

    WMAP 7January 26, 2010

    • , (+ACBAR +QUaD)

    • -

    • (+Hbaryon acoustic oscillations) - ; 1%. ( )

    • = -1.1 0.14; -1 -0.77% +0.31%

    • WMAP + H+ LSS :

      N<4.34 0.87. ( : 3.04 )

    • ( ) , .

    • .


    3252856


    3252856

    Planck

    • Planck

    • , 5. Planck a

    • - .

    • -9

    • -

    • with an uncertainty on the temperature limited by natural causes (foreground fluctuations, cosmic variance) rather than intrinsic or systematic detector noises

    Planck 30 GHz o 857 GHz. CMBR, , , .


    3252856

    :

    . Planck , - .

    -

    6 CDM

    4 10% 20%. ns

    1- ns =0.037 +- 0.014

    -


    3252856

    ( )

    • ,

    • WMAP

    Planck - :

    ?

    , ?

    ?


    3252856

    • LCDM

    • scale invariance of the primordial power spectrum.

    • Planck .

    • , WMAP

    • CMB 25 sigma

    • CMB

    • Planck WMAP

    • Planck BAO

    http://www.sciops.esa.int/index.php?project=PLANCK&page=47_ESLAB


    3252856


    3252856

    M Bersanelli


    3252856

    ,

    , 5

    ~ 70% .

    D, He-3,

    H-4 andLi-7

    .

    .

    The matter is mostly dark and non-baryonic,

    its density is under-critical ~ 0.30,

    the baryons constitute <5%!

    , -

    < 0.6 eV.

    -

    . - , .


    3252856

    , , .

    .

    • : , sp ,

    • (96% ): , , ,. - 5% ?

      : A,

    • , ,

    • ?

    • .

    • ?

    • -? ?

      ****************************


    3252856

    & a, ~ 1 ps

    LHC

    (pp)

    ,

    .

    51


    3252856

    !


    3252856

    ~4,6%

    ( ) ~0.002%

    . .

    , .

    .

    .

    .

    , , ..

    .

    ~22%

    ~73%

    • 4% - +, 0.0025% , 0.8% , 0.005%

    • 23% - , 73% , <0.02% ,


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