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Towards an Integrated Framework for Coastal Eco-Cities: EU-Asia perspectives Authors: P. Divarakan , V. Kapnopoulou , E. McMurtry , M. Seo , L. Yu PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Towards an Integrated Framework for Coastal Eco-Cities: EU-Asia perspectives Authors: P. Divarakan , V. Kapnopoulou , E. McMurtry , M. Seo , L. Yu. Contents. Introduction Main Aspects for Comparison Transferability Recommendations and Findings Limitations and Future Works.

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Towards an Integrated Framework for Coastal Eco-Cities: EU-Asia perspectives Authors: P. Divarakan , V. Kapnopoulou , E. McMurtry , M. Seo , L. Yu

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Towards an integrated framework for coastal eco cities eu asia perspectives authors p divarakan v kapnopoulou e mcmurtry m seo l yu

Towards an Integrated Framework for Coastal Eco-Cities:EU-Asia perspectivesAuthors: P. Divarakan, V. Kapnopoulou, E. McMurtry, M. Seo, L. Yu


Contents

Contents

  • Introduction

  • Main Aspects for Comparison

  • Transferability

  • Recommendations and Findings

  • Limitations and Future Works


Coastal eco cities guidance documents

Coastal Eco cities: guidance documents

Eco-cities working towards international Development

  • UN Habitat Sustainable Cities Programme

  • Millennium Development Goals

  • Local Agenda 21

  • World Bank:

  • Managing emerging cities that are under sever resource constraints

  • Natural

  • Physical

  • Administrative

  • Technical


Towards an integrated framework for coastal eco cities eu asia perspectives authors p divarakan v kapnopoulou e mcmurtry m seo l yu

  • 1st January 2012-31st December 2014

  • Climate change diplomacy

  • Eco-cities

  • Migration Integration

  • Social Cohesion

  • Human trafficking

  • Maritime Piracy and security

  • Food security


Case studies helsingborg sweden

Case studies: Helsingborg, Sweden

  • Population: 130,000

  • EU CONCERTO initiative

  • Eco-Dwellings, Eco-Rehabiltation

  • Renewable Energy supply

  • Energy efficiency in buildings

  • Polygeneration

  • Integration of energy supply and demand

  • Technological innovation


Case studies tianjin eco city china

Case studies:TianjinEco-City, China

  • New build project on a deserted salt farm

  • 34sq Kilometres

  • 350,000 residential capacity

  • Estimated completion: 2020

  • Land use planning

  • Transport planning

  • Green (vegetation) and blue (water) networks

  • Includes industrial districts, public buildings and residential communities


Framework

Framework

  • Attributes successes and failures to factors

  • Social, cultural, financial, legal and environmental challenges are examined

  • “Good practice and challenges”

  • Identify key areas for recommendation


Contents1

Contents

  • Introduction

  • Main Aspects for Comparison

    • Green Buildings

    • Transportation

    • Energy Supply

    • Waste Management

    • Coastal Infrastructures

    • Legislative Framework

    • Financial Aspects

    • Key Performance Indicators

  • Transferability

  • Recommendations and Findings

  • Limitations and Future Works


Green building

Green Building

  • Comparison on green building certifications

Tianjin Eco-City

Sweden

  • GBES: Evaluation Standard for Green Building

  • Miljöbyggnad: Environmental Building (Swedish)

  • BREEAM: BRE Environmental Assessment Method

  • LEED: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design


Transportation

Transportation

  • Comparison between transportation sector


Transportation1

Transportation

  • Comparison between transportation sector

Source: Dargay, et. al. (2007)


Transportation2

Transportation

  • Comparison between transportation sector

  • The European Commission proposed alternative fuels policy

  • Biogas infrastructures are well established in Sweden, Helsingborg

  • Air pollutant emissions of electric vehicles depend on region’s power plant mix.

  • In Tianjin Eco-City, large portion of energy comes from the renewable energy (at least 20%).

Source: Trendsetter (2003), USEPA (2013)


Energy supply

Energy Supply

  • Objective

    • Prioritization of renewable energy

    • Biogas in Helsingborg

    • Wind and solar energy in Tianjin

  • Heating Source

    • Tianjin Eco-City: 2% from distributed independent energy source

    • Helsingborg: 19% from distributed independent energy source


Energy supply1

Energy Supply

  • Solar energy: not applicable in Helsingborg with short sunshine hours.

  • Wind energy: most cost effective with lest GHG emissions.

  • Biogas for Tianjin: enough organic waste supply.

  • Ideal renewable energy source depends on local context.

  • Renewable source: Biogas V.S. Solar and wind


Waste management

Waste Management

  • Tianjin Eco-City

  • Helsingborg


Waste management1

Waste Management

  • Waste Recycleand treatment

    • Wastetreatment methods:Recycling, biological treatment, waste incineration, landfill

    • Waste Recycled:

      • 48% in Helsingborg

      • 60% in Tianjin

    • Waste incineration:

      • 51.6% inHelsingborg

      • <40% in Tianjin

    • Low landfill rate


Waste management2

Waste Management

  • Truck V.S. Pneumatic collection system

    • Less GHGemissions of Pneumatic system

    • Difficulty on Scale-out for Pneumatic system

  • Biological treatment techniques

    • Helsingborg: Anaerobic digestion for biogas

    • Tianjin Eco-City: Aerobic digestion to digest organic waste

  • Waste incineration and recycling

    • Disadvantages of waste incineration

    • Waste prevention and recycling is preferred to incineration


Coastal infrastructures

Coastal Infrastructures

Helsingborg

Tianjin Eco-City

No threat by sea level rise

No actions were taken

Immediate threat by sea level rise

Bears the highest risk from coastal flooding in China

100% of the population and urban area of Tianjin would be affected by coastal flooding

No action were taken towards achieving coastal resilience


Towards an integrated framework for coastal eco cities eu asia perspectives authors p divarakan v kapnopoulou e mcmurtry m seo l yu

  • Tianjin Eco-City-Suggested Actions: coastal resilience


Coastal infrastructures1

Coastal Infrastructures

In order to reach the goal of 10% of electricity supply from wind power an offshore wind farm is proposed to Tianjin Eco-City.

  • Tianjin Eco City-Suggested Actions: exploitation of the coastal offshore area

According to the Graph, the offshore wind farm has the largest total cost and lowest GHG emissions in all four renewable energy sources.


Legislative framework contract arrangement

Legislative Framework: Contract Arrangement

Helsingborg

Tianjin Eco City

Contract type: Framework Agreement

It is a “smarter way” to purchase works or supplies.

In individual contracts (call-offs) there is not need to repeat the procurement process again- Reduced bureaucracy

In the case of the project being conceived as a research/development opportunity or simply as a “purchase of works”, lies completely in the perception of the contracting authorities

Regarding the “bureaucracy” element, the pre-existence of mutual trust among the contracting members is imperative.

Contract type: Integrated Project

Describe projects with multi-partners which are formed to support objective driven research.

Necessary to have a series of well documented agreements–Increased bureaucracy


Financial aspects

Financial Aspects

Helsingborg

Tianjin Eco City

Public (Chinese and Singapore resources)-Private funds

FundingScheme

Financial Benefits

  • GDP per capita (in USD $) of Helsingborg-comparison with Sweden

  • GDP per capita (in USD $) of Tianjin- comparison with Shanghai and Beijing

Public (EU contribution)-Private funds


Key performance indicators

Key Performance Indicators

Energy

Waste

Water

Transportation

Economic

Land use

Infrastructure

Social

Air Quality

  • Renewable power production / total power consumption

  • Non fossil fuel in primary energy

  • Reduction of fossil fuels for heating compared to 2005

  • Renewable energy utilitarian rate

  • Proportion of renewable energy (excluding transportation)

  • Renewable/total energy (transportation)

  • Utilization rate of clean energy

  • Renewable and Clean Energy

  • Carbon

  • Sectorial Energy Use

  • Energy Security

  • Renewable and Clean Energy

  • Carbon

  • Sectorial Energy Use

  • Energy Security

Energy

Waste

Water

Transportation

Economic

Land use

Infrastructure

Social

Air Quality


Contents2

Contents

  • Introduction

  • Main Aspects for Comparison

  • Transferability

  • Recommendations and Findings

  • Limitations and Future Works


Transferability

Transferability

Green Buildings

Energy Supply

Waste Management

Transportation

Coastal

Contract arrangement

Stakeholder engagement


Recommendations and findings

Recommendations and Findings

For policymakers.

Legislative framework of both the projects are very different.

Opportunity for research and knowledge transfer.

Stakeholder engagement

For developers.

Good understanding of local context

Green building standards

Renewable energy sources

Current state transportation

State of the coastal sector

Transferability of green technologies and practices.


Limitations and future works

Limitations and Future works

Study is based on just one example from both Europe and Asia.

Limited resources to create firm guidelines and standards for suitable city schemes across European and Asian borders.

Findings of this project would be supported by a widening of the scope to include more cities from Europe and Asia.


Towards an integrated framework for coastal eco cities eu asia perspectives authors p divarakan v kapnopoulou e mcmurtry m seo l yu

Q&A


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