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Chapter 37: Circulatory & Respiratory Systems. Circulation: Structure and Function. Section 37.1. TRANSPORTATION Cells need to get nutrients and oxygen and get rid of wastes Consists of heart, blood vessels, and blood. What needs to be transported in the body?.

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circulation structure and function
Circulation: Structure and Function

Section 37.1

  • TRANSPORTATION
    • Cells need to get nutrients and oxygen and get rid of wastes
  • Consists of heart, blood vessels, and blood
what needs to be transported in the body
What needs to be transported in the body?

Transportation in living organisms:

  • Oxygen from the lungs to the cells of the body
  • Nitrogenous wastes to the kidneys for removal
  • Carbon dioxide waste from cells to the lungs for removal
  • Food nutrients from the intestines to cells for energy
slide5

1. _________ is contained in ____________.

2. The parts of the circulatory system are:

a. __________________

b. __________________

c. __________________

Blood

vessels

heart

vessels

blood

heart parts
Heart: parts
  • Hollow muscular organ that pumps blood
  • Enclosed by a protective layer called the pericardium
  • The thick layer of muscle is called the myocardium, which contains epithelial and connective tissue.
    • The myocardium contracts to pump blood!
slide7

4 heart chambers

Atria: 2 upper chambers

that receive blood into

the heart. Receiving

chambers (singular = atrium)

Ventricle: 2 lower chambers

that pump blood out of

the heart. Pumping

chambers. Ventricles have

thick muscle to pump to

the lungs/body

septum

slide8

II. The Heart

A. The heart is made up of ______________.

1. It is enclosed by the __________________ which

protects it.

2. The walls of the heart are made of a thick layer muscle called the _________________________, which

is surrounded by layers of epithelial and

___________________ tissue.

muscle

pericardium

myocardium

connective

slide9

Pericardium

  • Protective sac of connective tissue
  • Surrounds the heart
  • Filled with

fluid

check
Check…
  • Which body system acts in a way similar to a transportation system?

a. circulatory c. excretory

b. nervous d. respiratory

  • In the walls of the heart, the thick layer of muscle is called the

a. myocardium. c. connective tissue layer.

b. pericardium. d. epithelial tissue layer.

circulation

Myocardium

(heart muscle)

shown in red

Epicardium

(Outer surface

of myocardium)

Endocardium

(Inner surface of myocardium)

Circulation
  • Septum – layer that divides left and right sides of heart
  • Right side in charge of pumping blood from heart to lungs (pulmonary circulation)
  • Left side receives blood from lung, sends it out to rest of body! (systemic circulation)
  • After blood comes back from body, blood returns to right side and back to lungs for more O2
heart terminology
Heart terminology
  • Veins go to the heart
  • Arteries go away from the heart
  • Capillaries join the two and bring blood close to cells
  • One-way valves in the heart keep circulation efficient
    • Valves = flaps of connective tissue between atria and ventricles that open and close to move blood in a one-way flow
slide14

B. The heart contracts about ____ times per minute.

1. Each contraction pumps _______ of blood.

C. The _______ divides the _______ and _______

sides of the ________.

1. This prevents the mixing of the side that carries

blood with _________ and the side without.

72

70 mL

septum

left

right

heart

oxygen

slide15

D. Chambers of the Heart

1. The Upper Chamber is the __________.

a. Atria ________ the _________.

2. The Lower Chamber is called the ___________.

a. __________ pump blood ______.

3. The human heart has ___ atria and ___ ventricles.

atrium

receive

blood

ventricle

Ventricles

out

2

2

heart animations

heart parts

check1
Check…
  • Which is the correct direction of blood flow?

a. left ventricle  pulmonary artery  aorta

b. right atrium  right ventricle  pulmonary artery

c. left ventricle  left atrium  aorta

d. right atrium  left atrium  pulmonary artery

  • In the heart, the mixing of oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood is prevented by the

a. septum. c. tricuspid valve.

b. pericardium. d. mitral valve.

heartbeat
Heartbeat
  • 2 networks of muscle fibers in heart
    • One in atria, one in ventricles
  • Pacemaker – group of cardiac muscle cells, also called “sinoatrial node,” which contract and send an impulse to the network of muscle fibers
  • Blood can be stored in atria until it’s ready to move
  • When the network in the atria contracts, blood in atria flows into ventricles
  • When muscles in ventricles contract, blood flows out of heart!
slide19

When blood leaves the _________________ side of the heart, it is oxygen-poor. When blood leaves the _________________ side of the heart, it is oxygen-rich.

blood vessels
Blood vessels
  • When blood leaves left side, it is full of oxygen
    • Aorta = large blood vessel that receives blood after it leaves left ventricle
  • 3 types of blood vessels
    • Arteries, capillaries, veins
  • Arteries:
    • Super highways,

large, and muscular

    • Carry oxygenated blood

(except pulmonary artery.)

blood vessels continued
Blood vessels continued
  • Capillaries:
    • Smallest with walls only one-cell thick
    • Bring oxygen and nutrients to tissues and absorb CO2
    • “Side streets and alley ways”
  • Veins:
    • Large and muscular
    • contain valves and return blood to heart
blood pressure
Blood Pressure
  • Blood pressure = force of blood on arteries’ walls
  • Sphygmomanometer = device to measure blood pressure in your arm
  • Systolic pressure = force in arteries when ventricles contract
  • Diastolic pressure = force felt in arteries when ventricles relax
blood
Blood
  • Body contains about 4-6 liters
  • 45% consists of cells
    • Red blood cells called erythrocytes

which transport oxygen (the protein hemoglobin binds iron and oxygen)

    • White blood cells called leukocytes fight infection
    • Platelets are cell fragments that aid in clotting
  • 55% consists of straw colored fluid called plasma
    • 90% water
    • Contains albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen
slide24

Plasma

Platelets

White blood cells

Red blood cells

Whole Blood Sample

Sample Placed in Centrifuge

Blood Sample That Has Been Centrifuged

slide26

plasma

Red blood

cells

White BC

and

Platelets

Lymphatic

system

diseases of the circulatory system
Diseases of the Circulatory System
  • Heart disease, stroke are leading causes of death in US
  • Main causes: high blood pressure & atherosclerosis
  • Atherosclerosis = condition in which fatty deposits called plaque build up inside the arteries
consequences of atherosclerosis
Consequences of atherosclerosis
  • Blocked arteries can cause part of heart to die from lack of oxygen
  • If enough heart muscle dies, heart attack occurs
  • Blood clots can form, get stuck in blood vessel leading to brain
  • Stroke occurs
keeping your circulatory system healthy
Keeping your Circulatory System Healthy!
  • Exercise to keep your heart strong
  • Eat a low fat/low cholesterol diet
  • Don’t smoke!
  • Cardiovascular diseases are much easier to prevent than to cure.
check2
Check…

Which of the following is true about blood pressure?

  • a. Diastolic pressure is higher than systolic pressure.
  • b. It is not affected by atherosclerosis.
  • c. It drops a great deal when traveling through arteries.
  • d. It is lower in veins than in arteries.

Which of the following are the smallest of the blood vessels?

  • a. veins c. capillaries
  • b. lymphatic cells d. arteries
blood type review
Blood Type Review…
  • Which of the following genotypes result in the same phenotype?

a. IAIA and IAIB c. IBI and IAIB

b. IBIB and IBi d. IBi and ii

  • If a man with blood type A and a woman with blood type B produce an offspring, what might be the offspring’s blood type?

a. AB or O c. A, B, AB, or O

b. A, B, or O d. AB only

respiratory system
Respiratory System
  • 2 kinds of respiration

1. Cellular respiration = breaking down food molecules in the mitochondria in presence of oxygen to make ATP

2. Respiration for the organism = gas exchange (O2 in, CO2 out)

  • Function of respiratory system: to bring about exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood, air and tissues
parts of respiratory system
Parts of Respiratory System
  • Air: flows from the mouth & nose  pharynx  larynx  trachea  bronchus tubes

 bronchioles  alveoli

  • Pharynx = passage for air/food
  • Trachea = windpipe
    • Epiglottis = flap of tissue that

covers entrance to trachea when

you swallow

  • alveoli = air sacs surrounded by capillaries
keep it clean
Keep it Clean!
  • Cilia and mucus act as

filters along the pathway

    • to keep lung tissue healthy,

need to keep air warm,

moist, filtered!

    • Nose hairs filter dust
    • Mucus moistens air, traps dust/smoke
    • Cilia sweep dust, mucus away from lungs so they can be swallowed or spit out
    • animation
larynx and gas exchange
Larynx and Gas Exchange
  • Larynx, or voice box, has two elastic folds of tissue (your vocal cords!)
  • 2 bronchi (singular: bronchus) = passageways from trachea to lungs
  • These tubes subdivide into smaller tubes (bronchioles)
  • They end at alveoli (air sacs), where oxygen diffuses into capillaries to enter _________, while _________is picked up to be _______________________
breathing
Breathing
  • Movement of air into (inspiration) and out of (expiration) the lungs
  • Mainly controlled by brain!
  • Diaphragm = large flat muscle at base of chest cavity
  • Process of breathing is driven by air pressure
    • When diaphragm contracts, air comes in
    • When diaphragm relaxes, air is exhaled
    • animation
check3
Check…
  • Air is forced into the lungs by the contraction of the

a. alveoli. c. diaphragm.

b. bronchioles. d. heart.

  • Which of the following activities is the best analogy for respiration?

a. exchanging gifts c. receiving a gift

b. giving a gift d. sitting in a chair

slide41

Respiratory Diseases

  • Bronchitis: inflammation of bronchi
  • Emphysema: loss of elasticity of lung tissue
  • alveoli can’t expand for gas ex.
  • tobacco damages the tissue
  • Nicotine paralyzes cilia in upper respiratory system!
slide43

Asthma: narrowing of the bronchi and bronchioles due to the constriction of muscles

  • around the airways. Environmental, genetic?
  • Cystic fibrosis: recessive, autosomal genetic disease in which lungs collect mucous and cause multiple infections.
check4
Check…
  • Chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and lung cancer can be caused by

a. swollen bronchi. c. groups of cancer cells.

b. enlarged alveoli. d. smoking.

  • Air is filtered, warmed, and moistened in the

a. nose and mouth. c. lungs.

b.throat. d. pharynx.

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