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CONTROLLED FLIGHT INTO TERRAIN C F I T. C F I T. DEFINITION AN EVENT WHERE A MECHANICALLY NORMALLY FUNCTIONING AIRPLANE IS INADVERTENTLY FLOWN INTO THE GROUND, WATER, OR AN OBSTACLE. OVERVIEW FOR MANAGEMENT. INTRODUCTION.

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Controlled flight into terrain c f i t

CONTROLLED FLIGHT

INTO TERRAIN

C F I T


C f i t
C F I T

DEFINITION

AN EVENT WHERE A MECHANICALLY NORMALLY FUNCTIONING AIRPLANE IS INADVERTENTLY FLOWN INTO THE GROUND, WATER, OR AN OBSTACLE



Introduction
INTRODUCTION

  • CFIT CONTINUES TO BE THE DOMINANT REASON FOR ACCIDENTS INVOLVING HULL LOSSES AND FATALITIES

  • 9000 PEOPLE HAVE DIED WORLD WIDE BECAUSE OF CFIT

  • AT CURRENT RATE CFIT COULD CAUSE ONE MAJOR AIRLINE HULL LOSS, AND ASSOCIATED FATALITIES, PER WEEK BY YEAR 2010

  • IT IS IMPERATIVE THAT CFIT ACCIDENT RATE BE LOWERED

  • OPERATORS MUST BE MADE AWARE OF THE CFIT PROBLEM AS WELL AS TRAINED TO AVOID THESE ACCIDENTS


General goals objectives
GENERAL GOALS & OBJECTIVES

  • EDUCATE BOTH OPERATIONAL & MANAGEMENT PERSONNEL

  • PROVIDE SPECIFIC, APPROPRIATE EDUCATIONAL MATERIAL

  • PROPOSE AN EXAMPLE TRAINING PROGRAM

  • PROVIDE MANAGERS WITH AN EFFECTIVE CFIT AVOIDANCE STRATEGY


Resource utilization
RESOURCE UTILIZATION

  • OPERATORS SHOULD USE BOTH THE ACADEMIC AND SIMULATOR TRAINING PROGRAM TO ACHIEVE A WELL-BALANCED, EFFECTIVE CFIT TRAINING PROGRAM

  • ALLOCATION OF TRAINING TIME FOR CFIT WITHIN BOTH RECURRENT AND TRANSITION PROGRAM WILL VARY WITH EACH OPERATOR


Decision makers guide
DECISION MAKERS GUIDE

  • AIRLINE MANAGEMENT CREATES THE SAFETY CULTURE OF THE ORGANIZATION. THIS CULTURE THEN AFFECTS EVERYONE WITHIN THE ORGANIZATION

  • ACCIDENTS AND INCIDENTS ARE PREVENTABLE THROUGH EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT: DOING SO IS COST EFFECTIVE

















Factors that contribute to cfit
FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE COMMERCIAL JET FLEET TO CFIT

  • ALTIMETER SETTING UNITS OF MEASUREMENT

  • ALTIMETER SETTING

  • SAFE ALTITUDES

  • AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL

  • FLIGHT CREW COMPLACENCY

  • PROCEDURAL

    Contd.


PERCENTAGE OF ALL ACCIDENTS BY PHASE OF FLIGHT AND THE PERCENTAGE OF FLIGHT TIME THAT THE FLIGHT CREW IS EXPOSED DURING THAT PHASE


MAP LOCATION OF CFIT ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS PERCENTAGE OF FLIGHT TIME THAT THE FLIGHT CREW IS EXPOSED DURING THAT PHASE


Factors that contribute to cfit1
FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO CFIT PERCENTAGE OF FLIGHT TIME THAT THE FLIGHT CREW IS EXPOSED DURING THAT PHASE

  • DESCENT, APPROACH AND LANDING




Factors that contribute to c f i t
FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO C F I T COMMERCIAL JET FLEET

  • AUTOFLIGHT SYSTEM

  • TRAINING


C f i t prevention
C F I T PREVENTION COMMERCIAL JET FLEET

  • MINIMUM SAFE ALTITUDE WARNING SYSTEM (MSAWS)


C f i t prevention1
C F I T PREVENTION COMMERCIAL JET FLEET

  • MSAWS

  • CREW BRIEFING

  • AUTOFLIGHT SYSTEMS

  • ROUTE & DESTINATION FAMILIARIZATION

  • ALTITUDE AWARENESS

  • USE OF CALL OUTS

  • GPWS WARNING ESCAPE MANEUVER

  • CHARTS

  • TRAINING


Example cfit training program
EXAMPLE CFIT COMMERCIAL JET FLEETTRAINING PROGRAM


Academic training program
ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAM COMMERCIAL JET FLEET


Academic training program1
ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAM COMMERCIAL JET FLEET

  • RECOGNIZE FACTORS THAT LEAD TO CFIT ACCIDENTS AND INCIDENTS

  • KNOW PREVENTION STRATEGIES THAT WILL ENSURE SAFE FLIGHT

  • IMPROVE SITUATIONAL AWARENESS TO AVOID CFIT

  • LEARN ESCAPE MANEUVER AND TECHNIQUES TO ENHANCE POSSIBILITY OF SURVIVAL


Cfit simulator training program
CFIT SIMULATOR TRAINING PROGRAM COMMERCIAL JET FLEET


Simulator training objectives
SIMULATOR TRAINING OBJECTIVES COMMERCIAL JET FLEET

  • RECOGNIZE CONTRIBUTING FACTORS THAT CAN LEAD TO A CFIT INCIDENT

  • MAINTAIN PROPER HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL SITUATIONAL AWARENESS

  • COMMUNICATE & COORDINATE ON FLIGHT DECK DURING CRITICAL PHASES OF FLIGHT

  • RECOGNIZE A POTENTIAL CFIT SITUATION AND TAKE APPROPRIATE ACTION

  • GAIN CONFIDENCE IN THE GPWS

  • PERFORM A SUCCESSFUL CFIT ESCAPE MANEUVER


Pilot simulator briefing
PILOT SIMULATOR BRIEFING COMMERCIAL JET FLEET

  • REVIEW CONTRIBUTING FACTORS AND CAUSES

  • EXPLAIN NEED FOR GOOD FLIGHT CREW COORDINATION

  • DISCUSS GPWS OPERATING MODES

  • REVIEW AIRPLANE ESCAPE MANEUVER / PROCEDURE AND PILOT TECHNIQUES

  • DISCUSS COMMON FLIGHT CREW ERRORS


Generic gpws warning escape maneuver
GENERIC GPWS WARNING ESCAPE MANEUVER COMMERCIAL JET FLEET

  • REACT IMMEDIATELY TO A GPWS WARNING

  • POSITIVELY APPLY MAXIMUM THRUST AND ROTATE TO THE APPROPRIATE PITCH FOR YOUR AEROPLANE

  • PULL UP WITH WINGS LEVEL TO ENSURE MAXIMUM PERFORMANCE

  • ALWAYS RESPECT STICK SHAKER


Ground proximity warning modes mark vi
GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING MODES COMMERCIAL JET FLEET(MARK VI)


GPWS MODE 1 COMMERCIAL JET FLEET


GPWS MODE 1 COMMERCIAL JET FLEET


GPWS MODE 2 COMMERCIAL JET FLEET


GPWS MODE 3 COMMERCIAL JET FLEET

Fig.4


GPWS MODE 4 COMMERCIAL JET FLEET


GPWS MODE 4 COMMERCIAL JET FLEET

Fig. 4


GPWS MODE 5 COMMERCIAL JET FLEET


GPWS MODE 6 COMMERCIAL JET FLEET


Icao action on cfit prevention
ICAO ACTION ON CFIT PREVENTION COMMERCIAL JET FLEET

  • EXPANDED GPWS CARRIAGE REQUIREMENTS (31 DECEMBER 1998)

  • MINIMUM GPWS MODE REQUIREMENTS (31 DECEMBER 1998)

  • NON-PRECISION APPROACH PROCEDURE DESIGN

  • SPECIFICATIONS FOR INSTRUMENT APPROACH CHARTS AND OTHER CHARTS (SID, STAR, AND TERMINAL AREA)


Icao action on cfit prevention 2
ICAO ACTION ON CFIT PREVENTION (2) COMMERCIAL JET FLEET

  • FUTURE PUBLICATION OF THE CFIT PREVENTION PROGRAMME

  • FUTURE MAJOR EFFORT TO ENSURE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAMME IN INTERNATIONAL AND IN DOMESTIC OPERATIONS


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