Hsc senior science presented by liverpool and zone science teachers association lazsta
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HSC Senior Science presented by Liverpool and Zone Science Teachers Association (LAZSTA). Senior Science Information Systems LAZSTA 2010 presented by Greg Pitt. Senior Science Websites. Board of Studies - Syllabuses http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/syllabus_hsc/ HSC Exams

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HSC Senior Science presented by Liverpool and Zone Science Teachers Association (LAZSTA)

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Hsc senior science presented by liverpool and zone science teachers association lazsta

HSCSenior Sciencepresented byLiverpool and Zone Science Teachers Association(LAZSTA)


Senior science information systems lazsta 2010 presented by greg pitt

Senior ScienceInformation SystemsLAZSTA2010presented byGreg Pitt


Senior science websites

Senior Science Websites

  • Board of Studies - Syllabuses

  • http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/syllabus_hsc/

  • HSC Exams

  • http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/hsc_exams/

  • HSC Timetable

  • http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/events/hsc-exam-timetable-2010.html

Updated information for 2010


Documents you should check out

Documents You Should Check Out

  • NSW BOS HSC Standards Packages[Your school has these]

  • HSC examination papers

  • Notes from the Examination Centre

  • HSC Examination Mapping Grid

  • HSC Marking Guidelines

  • HSC Sample answers


Communication activity morse code messages

Communication Activity – Morse Code Messages

Class activity… [see handout]

Morse code* communication competition

* created for Samuel F. B. Morse's electric telegraph in the early 1840s, Morse code was also extensively used for early radio communication beginning in the 1890s

classify information systems as: verbal and nonverbal; short distance and long distance; electronic and non-electronic


Basic pattern of information transfer

Basic Pattern of Information Transfer

Information transfer requires:

  • the transmitter and receiver have an agreed code

  • encoding

  • transmission

  • decoding

  • energy transformations often occur when information is transferred

  • outline the basic pattern of the information transfer process


Hsc senior science presented by liverpool and zone science teachers association lazsta

Verbal vs non-verbal

  • verbal and nonverbal

  • short distance and long distance

  • electronic and non-electronic

classify information systems as: verbal and nonverbal; short distance and long distance; electronic and non-electronic


Classifying information systems

Classifying Information Systems

Can you identify the verbal and non-verbal components of this sign?

  • classify information systems … verbal and non-verbal


Difficult points information systems

Difficult Points – Information Systems

  • Land connected phones may use either copper wire (upper part of flowchart below) or optical fibres to transmit the information

Microphone converts sound energy to electrical energy

Electrical energy transmits information in a copper cable

Earphone / speaker converts electrical energy to sound energy

Light energy transmits information in an optical fibre made of glass

Electrical energy converted to light energy for optical fibre transmission

light energy converted to electrical energy following optical fibre transmission

identify the transformation of energy at each stage of information transfer in the following devices: land connected telephones; mobile phones; television; radios; Compact Disc players


Difficult points information systems1

Difficult Points – Information Systems

The following energy transformations take place in a mobile phone but are not directly associated with information transfer

  • Energy is stored as chemical energy in the phone’s battery

  • Chemical energy is transformed to electrical energy to operate the phone

  • The LCD colour screen converts electrical energy to light energy

identify the transformation of energy at each stage of information transfer in the following devices: land connected telephones; mobile phones; television; radios; Compact Disc players


Difficult points information systems2

Difficult Points – Information Systems

identify the transformation of energy at each stage of information transfer in the following devices: land connected telephones; mobile phones; television; radios; Compact Disc players


Difficult points information systems3

Electrical

energy to aerial

Difficult Points – Information Systems

  • identify the transformation of energy at each stage of information transfer in the following devices

    –radios [complete flowchart …]

microphone

converts

sound to

electrical

energy

Radio

modulates

carrier with

signal -

ENCODES

information

Aerial converts

electrical energy

to

electromagnetic

waves

sound

identify the transformation of energy at each stage of information transfer in the following devices: land connected telephones; mobile phones; television; radios; Compact Disc players


Difficult points information systems4

Difficult Points – Information Systems

  • light/sound energy => electrical energy (CCD / microphone)

    electrical energy => electromagnetic radiation (aerial/antenna)

    electromagnetic radiation => electrical energy (aerial/antenna)

    electrical energy => light/sound (screen / speakers)

Electrical Energy

Signal modulation

Electrical energy

to transmitter antenna

Light

Sound

CCD

microphone

identify the transformation of energy at each stage of information transfer in the following devices: land connected telephones; mobile phones; television; radios; Compact Disc players


Difficult points information systems5

Difficult Points – Information Systems

  • light/sound energy => electrical energy (CCD / microphone)

    electrical energy => electromagnetic radiation (aerial/antenna)

    electromagnetic radiation => electrical energy (aerial / antenna)

    electrical energy => light/sound (screen / speakers)

antenna converts

electromagnetic

to electrical energy

Transmission

as

electrical energy

Television

decodes

information

and converts

electrical energy

to light and sound

TV screen

light

sound

speaker

identify the transformation of energy at each stage of information transfer in the following devices: land connected telephones; mobile phones; television; radios; Compact Disc players


Difficult points information systems6

Difficult Points – Information Systems

  • Summary video component

    • Light to electrical (CCD)

    • Electrical to electromagnetic (transmitting antenna)

    • Electromagnetic to electrical (receiving antenna)

    • Electrical to light (screen)

identify the transformation of energy at each stage of information transfer in the following devices: land connected telephones; mobile phones; television; radios; Compact Disc players


Difficult points information systems7

Difficult Points – Information Systems

  • Summary audio component

    • Sound to electrical (microphone)

    • Electrical to electromagnetic (transmitting antenna)

    • Electromagnetic to electrical (receiving antenna)

    • Electrical to sound (speaker)

identify the transformation of energy at each stage of information transfer in the following devices: land connected telephones; mobile phones; television; radios; Compact Disc players


Communication using compact discs

Communication Using Compact Discs

  • A compact disc stores binary encoded information using a pits in an aluminium metal layer on the disc

  • Light energy (an infrared laser) is focussed onto the pits and a photodiode detects the changes in the reflected energy as the disc rotates

gather and process first-hand and secondary information on the basic pattern of the information transfer process in the following systems: land connected telephones; mobile phones; television; radios; Compact Disc players to outline the features that the systems have in common and use available evidence to discuss applications of these systems


Communication using compact discs1

Communication Using Compact Discs

gather and process first-hand and secondary information on the basic pattern of the information transfer process in the following systems: land connected telephones; mobile phones; television; radios; Compact Disc players to outline the features that the systems have in common and use available evidence to discuss applications of these systems


Communication using compact discs2

Communication Using Compact Discs

  • identify the transformation of energy at each stage of information transfer in CD player

    – compact disc players

    • Laser light reflects from pits on CD

    • Reflected light energy converted to electrical energy by light sensor (digital signals)

    • Digital signals converted to electrical analogue signals

    • Electrical signals amplified

    • Electrical energy converted to sound energy by headphones

gather and process first-hand and secondary information on the basic pattern of the information transfer process in the following systems: land connected telephones; mobile phones; television; radios; Compact Disc players to outline the features that the systems have in common and use available evidence to discuss applications of these systems


Hsc senior science presented by liverpool and zone science teachers association lazsta

  • Common Features

  • Encoding

  • Storage

  • Transmission

  • Decoding

  • Energy transformations

  • Electrical energy use

  • Applications

  • Transmission of voice / other sounds

  • Transmission of images

  • Transmission of text

  • Emergency services

  • Entertainment

  • Business and commerce

SYLLABUS point…

gather and process first-hand and secondary information on the basic pattern of the information transfer process in the following systems:

–land connected telephones

–mobile phones

–television

–radios

–compact disc players

to outline features that the systems have in common and use available evidence to discuss the applications of these systems


The e m spectrum and communication

The E/M spectrum and Communication

  • Radio - radio waves

  • TV - radio / TV waves

  • Mobile phones - microwaves

  • Fixed phone - light (fibre optics)

Demo IR camera

Electromagnetic waves do not require a physical medium in which to travel

e.g. light, radio and TV waves

But they may travel through optical fibres due to the fibres’ transparency

identify communication technologies that use energies from the electromagnetic spectrum for communication purposes


Live satellite communication

Live Satellite Communication

gather, process and analyse information from secondary sources to identify the satellites used for ‘live’ telecasts from other regions of the world to Australia and vice versa and to present reasons why communication satellites have different aerials and positional orbits (9.4.4.3.1)


Live satellite communication1

Live Satellite Communication


Live broadcast satellites serving australia

Live Broadcast Satellites Serving Australia

  • Optus * 3 satellites

  • AsiaSat * 3 satellites

  • PAS2 * 2 satellites

  • Intelsat * 7 satellites

  • Inmarsat * 2 satellites

  • AusSat * __ satellites

Remember TWO of thesee.g. Intelsat, PAS

Some Service Providers:

NetspeedAustar Optus Telstra iHugNewskiesMediaSat NTL Heartland XanticStratos

gather, process and analyse information from secondary sources to identify the satellites used for ‘live’ telecasts from other regions of the world to Australia and vice versa and to present reasons why communication satellites have different aerials and positional orbits (9.4.4.3.1)


Broadcast satellites positional orbits

Broadcast Satellites Positional Orbits

“positional orbits” - yikes! “orbital positions” would be better!

Well OK…

  • A satellite can only receive and transmit to a maximum of about 40 % of the Earth’s surface (usually less in practice)

  • Therefore, to cover all countries requiring satellite communications services, many satellites are needed in different locations, or geostationary orbital positions

Solar panels convert light to electricity

gather, process and analyse information from secondary sources to identify the satellites used for ‘live’ telecasts from other regions of the world to Australia and vice versa and to present reasons why communication satellites have different aerials and positional orbits (9.4.4.3.1)


Broadcast satellites positional orbits1

Broadcast Satellites Positional Orbits

gather, process and analyse information from secondary sources to identify the satellites used for ‘live’ telecasts from other regions of the world to Australia and vice versa and to present reasons why communication satellites have different aerials and positional orbits (9.4.4.3.1)


Different satellites have different aerials

Different Satellites Have Different Aerials

  • e.g. PAS2 (PanAmSat 2)

  • each aerial has a footprint determined by the transmitting antenna dish size and the direction in which it points

  • NSW has good coverage from PAS2

  • small dishes can be used because of the short wavelengths of the microwaves used for satellite communications

  • The satellite is placed in geostationary orbit so that 24 h service to these areas is provided

Areas covered by different antennas on the satellite

gather, process and analyse information from secondary sources to identify the satellites used for ‘live’ telecasts from other regions of the world to Australia and vice versa and to present reasons why communication satellites have different aerials and positional orbits (9.4.4.3.1)


Different satellites have different aerials1

Different Satellites Have Different Aerials

  • This was the view from Aussat 2

  • With which countries could Aussat 2 communicate?

  • Australia

  • New Zealand

  • Papua New Guinea

  • Japan

  • Indonesia

gather, process and analyse information from secondary sources to identify the satellites used for ‘live’ telecasts from other regions of the world to Australia and vice versa and to present reasons why communication satellites have different aerials and positional orbits (9.4.4.3.1)


Different satellites have different aerials2

Different Satellites Have Different Aerials

antennas

  • A geostationary satellite above the equator to the north of Australia can provide simultaneous and independent services to Australia and Japan using different aerials.

  • To conserve energy (supplied by solar panels), transmissions from the satellite are concentrated in a narrow beam to each location (by using a reflecting dish behind the antenna)

solar panel

gather, process and analyse information from secondary sources to identify the satellites used for ‘live’ telecasts from other regions of the world to Australia and vice versa and to present reasons why communication satellites have different aerials and positional orbits (9.4.4.3.1)


Different satellites have different aerials3

Different Satellites Have Different Aerials

antennas

Different aerials allow satellites to cover different footprints(e.g. Australia and Japan can be covered separately by different aerials on the same satellite) and send and receive different types of data(e.g. TV, meteorological data, telecommunications such as telephones)

[Note the 2 reasons]

solar panel

gather, process and analyse information from secondary sources to identify the satellites used for ‘live’ telecasts from other regions of the world to Australia and vice versa and to present reasons why communication satellites have different aerials and positional orbits (9.4.4.3.1)


Hsc senior science presented by liverpool and zone science teachers association lazsta

N

Would you trust these people to put you in space?


Copper cables and fibre optics

Copper Cables and Fibre Optics

  • Capacity: It is difficult to distinguish capacity from rate of information transfer (a syllabus problem). Capacity could be compared by considering a single wire and a single optical fibre (not bundles of each).

  • One method of comparison could be the number of simultaneous telephone calls (<100 with a single copper wire and >1000 with a single optical fibre – figures obtained vary greatly with sources, particularly the date of the source data)

process and analyse information from secondary sources to compare and contrast copper cables with fibre optic cables in relation to; (a) carrying capacity (b) cost (c) rate of information transfer (d) security (9.4.6.3.2)


Copper cables and fibre optics1

Copper Cables and Fibre Optics

Carrying Capacity

Optical fibre has a greater information carrying capacity than any other medium, including radio, wireless or copper wire.

Terahertz (1012 Hz) bit rate has been achieved in the lab. As a comparison, the entire useful radio bandwidth worldwide is only 25 Gbps, a mere 0.1 percent of the bandwidth supported by a single strand of fibre. A single strand of optical fiber can easily replace a large bundle of copper wires while significantly boosting system capacity.

process and analyse information from secondary sources to compare and contrast copper cables with fibre optic cables in relation to; (a) carrying capacity (b) cost (c) rate of information transfer (d) security (9.4.6.3.2)


Copper cables and fibre optics cost

Copper Cables and Fibre Optics - Cost

  • At the canteen, apples cost 65 cents and oranges cost 80 cents.

  • Discuss the statement “Apples cost less than oranges at the canteen”. (3M)

  • Copper prices are determined by demand. The cost of copper cables is partly determined by the variable price of copper.

process and analyse information from secondary sources to compare and contrast copper cables with fibre optic cables in relation to; (a) carrying capacity (b) cost (c) rate of information transfer (d) security (9.4.6.3.2)


Copper cables and fibre optics cost1

Copper Cables and Fibre Optics - Cost

Cost depends on

  • Raw materials costs (less for glass than copper)

  • Final cable cost (more for optical fibre?)

  • Cost per gigabit of information transferred (much less for fibre)

  • Much greater amounts of information can be transferred at a much lower cost per gigabit of data to the service provider and consumer.

    Optical fibre is therefore much cheaper using this criterion.

process and analyse information from secondary sources to compare and contrast copper cables with fibre optic cables in relation to; (a) carrying capacity (b) cost (c) rate of information transfer (d) security (9.4.6.3.2)


Copper cables vs fibre optics data transfer rates

Copper CablesvsFibreOptics – Data Transfer Rates

  • Rate: Rate of information transfer can be stated quantitatively in bytes/second (or appropriate multiples thereof).

    • To compare rates, the same units must be chosen – it is meaningless to compare MHz to Mb for example.

  • This point in the syllabus could possibly be interpreted as the speed at which the signal travels in the cable – about 2 x 108m/s for light in an optical fibre and a little less than 3 x 108m/s for electricity in a wire (it’s faster in copper wire).

process and analyse information from secondary sources to compare and contrast copper cables with fibre optic cables in relation to; (a) carrying capacity (b) cost (c) rate of information transfer (d) security (9.4.6.3.2)


Copper cables and fibre optics cost2

Copper Cables and Fibre Optics - Cost

  • There is a common misconception about security in using optical fibres. Both copper and optic fibre can transmit secure data, since both (a similarity) can transmit digital data that can be encrypted so that it is virtually impossible to decrypt (the system is called “secure encryption” and is used extensively for data transmission).

  • Signals in copper wires can be ‘tapped’ more readily than optical fibre signals and hence IF the data is NOT ENCRYPTED, copper wires present a greater security risk than optical fibres.

process and analyse information from secondary sources to compare and contrast copper cables with fibre optic cables in relation to; (a) carrying capacity (b) cost (c) rate of information transfer (d) security (9.4.6.3.2)


Copper cables and fibre optics summary

Copper Cables and Fibre Optics - Summary

process and analyse information from secondary sources to compare and contrast copper cables with fibre optic cables in relation to; (a) carrying capacity (b) cost (c) rate of information transfer (d) security (9.4.6.3.2)


Copper vs fibre optics hsc05

Copper vs Fibre Optics HSC05

Question 24

(a)Better responses presented a correct sequence of energy changes with direction indicated by arrows.

(b)Better responses included a good description of the process of digital coding, clearly relating this to the impact upon the development of communication technologies.

process and analyse information from secondary sources to compare and contrast copper cables with fibre optic cables in relation to; (a) carrying capacity (b) cost (c) rate of information transfer (d) security (9.4.6.3.2)


Mandatory investigations

Mandatory Investigations


Mandatory first hand investigations

Mandatory First-hand Investigations

Planning First-hand Investigations

1.Identify sources of information (bibliography) and read about the phenomenon you’re investigating.

2.State the purpose of the investigation.

3.Propose a hypothesis that can be tested.

4.Identify the variables or factors that affect the phenomenon being investigated.

5.Determine which are the independent and dependent variables.

6.Propose a method for controlling the identified variables.

7.Identify potential hazards and the describe the methods used to mitigate against these.

8.Identify and describe (using diagrams where these will clarify the procedure) the equipment, appropriate technology (including data loggers) and procedure most appropriate to undertake the investigation. Consider use of resources, destructive vs non-destructive procedures and disposal of wastes.

9.Outline the method, clearly identifying the variables to be changed and the variables to be kept constant. Discuss the use of a control.

10.Design the investigation so that it allows valid and reliable data to be collected.

11.Identify and use correct units for data that will be collected.

12.Identify the orders of magnitude that will be appropriate and the uncertainty that may be present in the measurement of data.

13.Determine how the collected data will be analysed to produce a conclusion related to the aim or the hypothesis.


Mandatory first hand investigations1

Mandatory First-hand Investigations

Things you should be able to write in relation to every FHI

1.Clarify the aim or purpose of the investigation – this should relate to the conclusion.

2.Recount the procedure used in the investigation/s conducted to meet the syllabus requirements.

3.Identify the investigation as destructive or non-destructive.

4.Summarise the observations made during this investigation.

5.Identify the data that was collected during the investigation – what quantities were observed or measured?

6.Identify any technology used in the investigation e.g. data loggers, computer simulations

7.Identify the order of magnitude of measured quantities and assess the uncertainty present in measured data.

8.Identify the units used in measuring each quantity.

9.Identify the independent and dependent variables.

10.Identify at least one significant variable that was kept constant throughout the investigation.

11.Propose a reason why it would be important for several groups to carry out the investigation using the same type of equipment and procedures. Was the procedure reliable?

12.Present your findings in the form of a succinct conclusion.

13.Compare the investigation carried out with alternative methods and discuss the different procedures. Suggest modifications and improvements.


Tabulating results

Tabulating Results

Effect of Exercise on Heart Rate

  • Rule up columns

  • Label the table with a title

  • Label each column with a quantity

  • Include the units in parentheses with the quantity name

  • Calculate an average value if applicable

  • In this example, an additional column showing the difference between to two rates could be included.

Return


Graphing results

Graphing Results

  • Label the graph with a title

  • Label each axis with a quantity

  • Include the units in parentheses with the quantity name on each axis

  • Plot data points using an “X”

  • Draw a line of best fit if the variables are continuous

  • If the variables are not continuous, do not draw a line of best fit - consider using a column graph instead


Hsc senior science presented by liverpool and zone science teachers association lazsta

A word from the creator

This PowerPoint presentation was prepared by

Greg Pitt

of

Hurlstone Agricultural High School

Please feel free to use this material as you see fit, but if you use substantial parts of this presentation, leave this slide in the presentation

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