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Information Systems and Organisations. Lecture11: IS and Organisational Change. Scope and Coverage. This unit will cover: Change challenges Change management concepts and models IS enabled organisational change. Learning Outcomes. By the end of this unit students will be able to:

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information systems and organisations

Information Systems and Organisations

Lecture11:

IS and Organisational Change

scope and coverage
Scope and Coverage
  • This unit will cover:
    • Change challenges
    • Change management concepts and models
    • IS enabled organisational change
learning outcomes
Learning Outcomes
  • By the end of this unit students will be able to:
    • Appreciate the challenges of changing organisations
    • Understand good change management approaches
    • Be equipped to help plan IS related business change
contents
Contents
  • Barriers to change
  • Change in organisations
  • Change models
  • IS and organisational change
  • Emphasis – People , Technology and Organisations
what makes change difficult
What Makes Change Difficult?
  • Organisations – barriers to change
    • Existing working practice (processes)
    • Existing political structures and balances
    • People unwilling or unable to change
    • Limitations of Technology
    • Poor change process and/or poorly managed
working practices
Working Practices
  • Human tendency to ‘stick to what we know’...
  • Saves time and effort
  • Saves time learning something new
  • Personal Interests
    • A job
    • Position and Influence
    • Political Power
    • Economic Benefit
is can disturb the status quo
IS Can Disturb the Status Quo

Technology Capabilities

Organisational Capabilities

O

T

Culture

Skills

Systems

Values

Agendas

Infrastructure

Technology

Functions

Applications

P

Job Content

Processes

New Applications

Organisational Relationships

influencing change structuration 1

signification

domination

legitimation

Interpretative

scheme

facility

norm

communication

power

sanction

Influencing Change – Structuration 1

Technology Capabilities

Typical organisational

change focus

How interpreted?

Composition?

Response?

What is possible?

Influencing?

Individual ‘owned’

tasks?

When to use?

With who?

Group ‘owned’ tasks?

influencing change structuration 2

signification

domination

legitimation

Interpretative

scheme

facility

norm

communication

power

sanction

Influencing Change – Structuration 2

Technology Capabilities

Necessary for effective

and successful change

How interpreted?

Composition?

Response?

What is possible?

Influencing?

Individual ‘owned’

tasks?

When to use?

With who?

Group ‘owned’ tasks?

lewins 3 stage model
Lewins 3 Stage Model
  • Unfreeze – Change – Refreeze
  • A systematic process to address change
  • The following urls contain further detail
    • http://mindfirepress.com/uploads/Lewin_s_change_model_INTERFACES_2001.pdf
    • http://www.solonline.org/res/wp/10006.html
  • Incorporates Force-Field-Analysis (example next slide)
    • http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTED_06.htm
slide11

Analysis involves scoring forces for and forces against a change. In the example, forces against slightly exceed those for the change (TOTALS 11 versus 10)

(In reality, the relative strengths of the forces will change over time, making dynamic assessment necessary.)

Change management needs to take actions that increase and strengthen forces for..... reduce or eliminate forces against

is and change
IS and Change
  • We have seen the extent to which IS have the capability to influence change to organisations
  • Managers who introduce new IS need to plan for organisational change. Otherwise the change that occurs when new IS are introduced may be unexpected and not deliver the benefits anticipated
it enabled business change
IT Enabled Business Change
  • At all stages, the approach is iterative rather than linear

Align business

and I.T. goals

Define

business

improvement

Design

business

change

Implement

Business

change

Deliver

benefits

Manwani, S (2008), Fig 2.1. Page 14

lynchpins of change
Lynchpins of Change
  • Align goals, strategy and resources--- Plan to deliver and measure benefits

Align business

and I.T. goals

Define

business

improvement

Design

business

change

Implement

Business

change

Deliver

benefits

Adapted from , Manwani, S (2008), Fig 2.1. Page 14

organisational and is alignment
Organisational and IS Alignment
  • Alignment of Strategies
    • Resources
    • Processes
    • Planning
    • Measurements of success
    • Management and Governance
    • Understanding by IS/IT of the business and by Business of IS/IT capabilities
delivery of benefits
Delivery of Benefits
  • Start project/initiative/change planning with anticipated business Benefits
  • Work backwards toward necessary business and IS change
  • Remain flexible
  • Aim to deliver business benefits incrementally (quick wins)
iterative change agile project management
Iterative Change – Agile Project Management
  • Flexible Planning
  • ‘Living’ Documents
  • Informal Interaction
  • Dynamic Structure
  • Customer Interaction
  • Small outcomes delivered incrementally
making a change with is
Making a Change With IS
  • A new IS will not, in itself, change the organisation
  • Attention needs to be paid to, People and Organisation as well as Technology
  • Different perspectives on the organisation need to be taken, not just the Machine/Structure but the Organism/Context
  • Stakeholders ,Culture and Politics are all important
is and change a reflection
IS and Change – A Reflection
  • In attempting to put all the detailed qualitative and quantitative results reported, one perception is thrown into sharp relief. This is that attempts to employ information technologies to accomplish changes in working practices within organisations are fraught with difficulty. Technology can provide new capacities and capabilities, but co-operative work output results from a rich interaction of human and technological factors. Managers who seek a change in organisational culture and practices cannot therefore rely upon information systems to provide a "technological fix“
        • Slightly adapted from Hassall (1999), Page 214
references
References
  • Manwani, S (2008) IT Enabled Business Change; successful Management ISBN-13: 978-1-902505-91-6. British Computer Society
  • Hassall, J C, 1999, Developing Performance Models for Co-operative Information Systems in an Organisational Context, Doctor of Philosophy, Aston University, July 1999.
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