Anatomy of and Injuries to the Knee Joint Complex
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Anatomy of and Injuries to the Knee Joint Complex. Riann M. Palmieri-Smith, Ph.D., ATC Neuromuscular Research Laboratory Division of Kinesiology University of Michigan. What do the knees do?. Simple joint that is required to do a complicated job… Mobility/Stability Weight-bearing.

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Anatomy of and Injuries to the Knee Joint Complex

Riann M. Palmieri-Smith, Ph.D., ATC

Neuromuscular Research Laboratory

Division of Kinesiology

University of Michigan


What do the knees do
What do the knees do?

  • Simple joint that is required to do a complicated job…

    • Mobility/Stability

    • Weight-bearing


The knee joint complex
The Knee Joint Complex

  • Made up of 3 bones

    • Femur

    • Tibia

    • Patella

  • The knee is really two joints

    • Patello-femoral joint

    • Tibio-femoral joint


Parts of the knee
Parts of the Knee

  • Articular Cartilage

    • Cover the ends of the 3 bones

  • Menisci

    • Separate the upper and lower bones of the knee


Parts of the knee1
Parts of the Knee

  • Ligaments

    • ACL

    • PCL

    • MCL

    • LCL

  • Tendons

    • Quadriceps

    • Patellar

  • Muscles

    • Quadriceps

    • Hamstrings


What causes knee problems
What causes knee problems?

  • Disease

    • A number of diseases can affect the knee

    • Arthritis

  • Injury

    • Acute trauma

    • Chronic injury

    • Lifetime wear and tear


Anterior cruciate ligament injury
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

  • One of the most commonly injured knee ligaments

  • Gender difference in injury rates

  • Injury Mechanism:

    • Noncontact

    • Contact


Anterior cruciate ligament injury1
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

  • What will my knee feel like:

    • “Popping” sound at the time of injury

    • Rapid Swelling

    • Pain

    • Instability

  • Associated with a quicker onset of osteoarthritis


Posterior cruciate ligament injury
Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

  • Less common than ACL tears

  • Primary stabilizer of the knee

  • Injury Mechanism:

    • Fall on a bent knee

    • MVA


Posterior cruciate ligament injury1
Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

  • What will my knee feel like:

    • Mild to Moderate Pain in the back of the knee

    • Swelling

    • Knee Instability


Collateral ligament injury
Collateral Ligament Injury

  • MCL tears more common

  • Injury Mechanism:

    • Direct Blow

    • When the lower leg is forced sideways, either toward the other knee or away from the other knee

  • Graded by severity


Collateral ligament injury1
Collateral Ligament Injury

  • What will my knee feel like:

    • Pain over the ligament

    • Swelling

    • Instability


Articular cartilage injuries
Articular Cartilage Injuries

  • Can be isolated or occur in conjunction with another injury

  • Injury mechanism: Sudden twist/pivot or forceful impact.

  • Damage is graded from minor to severe


Articular cartilage injuries1
Articular Cartilage Injuries

  • What will my knee feel like:

    • Vague knee pain & swelling

    • Stiffness

    • Locking of the knee (loose body)

  • Difficult to diagnose

  • Accelerate the onset of osteoarthritis


Meniscal injuries
Meniscal Injuries

  • Can be isolated or occur in conjunction with another injury

  • Injury mechanism:

    • Vulnerable to twist & compression

    • Trivial trauma (older)


Meniscal injuries1
Meniscal Injuries

  • What will my knee feel like:

    • Acute:

      • Swelling

      • Pain

      • Locks/catches with movement

    • Degenerative:

      • Repeated episodes of swelling

      • Pain

      • Locking/catching


Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis

  • Most common type of arthritis

    • Affects over 10 million Americans

  • Chronic condition characterized by the breakdown of cartilage


Osteoarthritis1
Osteoarthritis

  • Progressive disease

    • Cartilage loses elasticity

    • Wear of cartilage causes changes to underlying bone

    • Bits of bone or cartilage float loosely

    • The joint lining becomes inflamed due to cartilage breakdown


Osteoarthritis2
Osteoarthritis

  • Risk factors for OA:

    • Age

    • Obesity

    • Injury or Overuse

    • Genetics

    • Muscle Weakness

    • Other Diseases

  • What will my knee feel like:

    • Pain when moving the knee

    • Joint stiffness

    • Grating or catching when moving the knee

    • Pain when walking up and down stairs or getting up from a chair

    • Weakened large thigh muscles

    • Deterioration of coordination, posture and walking due to pain and stiffness.


Inquisitive minds want to know
Inquisitive minds want to know…

  • What can I do if I suffer from a knee injury or disease?

  • What can I do to prevent knee injury or disease?

  • Dr. Wojtys can you help us out???


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