History of archival and records enterprise
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HISTORY OF ARCHIVAL AND RECORDS ENTERPRISE. Epochs in the Development of Archival and Records Enterprise. Antiquity. CHINA. Dang An. Practice. Compiled chronicles. CHINA. Epochs in the Development of Archival and Records Enterprise. Antiquity

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HISTORY OF ARCHIVAL AND RECORDS ENTERPRISE

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History of archival and records enterprise

HISTORY OF ARCHIVAL AND RECORDS ENTERPRISE

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Epochs in the development of archival and records enterprise

Epochs in the Development ofArchival and Records Enterprise

  • Antiquity

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China

CHINA

Dang An

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China1

Practice

Compiled chronicles

CHINA

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Epochs in the development of archival and records enterprise1

Epochs in the Development ofArchival and Records Enterprise

  • Antiquity

  • Development of the Concept of Archives, c. 400 B.C. – c. 500 A.D.

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Greece

Αρχείο

“Archeion”

That which belongs to an office.

GREECE

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Greece1

Practices

Deposit gives private documents a public authority

Authoritative record was the most public record

The Notary

GREECE

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History of archival and records enterprise

ROME

Adopted concepts of the Greeks and added concepts of their own.

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Rome terms

Filium

Tabula

Regesta

File

Tablet

Register

ROMETerms

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History of archival and records enterprise

Practices

Registration conveys official status

Keeping minutes

Emperor destroyed records of predecessor

Residencia

Regard for provenance

ROME

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Media

MEDIA

  • Papyrus

  • Wood and wax tablet

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Epochs in the development of archival and records enterprise2

Epochs in the Development ofArchival and Records Enterprise

  • Antiquity

  • Development of the Concept of Archives, c. 400 B.C. – c. 500 A.D.

  • Dormancy, c. 500-1500

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Dormancy

Practices

Memory and objects replaced written record as authority

Authenticated with wax seal

Dormancy

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Dormancy1

Term

“Clerk” derived from clerics who staff chanceries

Dormancy

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Dormancy2

Practices and Concepts

Records schedule, 800s

Case file, c. 1200

Records as property of the office, 1331

Distinguish current from records of long-term value

Dormancy

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Epochs in the development of archival and records enterprise3

Epochs in the Development ofArchival and Records Enterprise

  • Antiquity

  • Development of the Concept of Archives, c. 400 B.C. – c. 500 A.D.

  • Dormancy, c. 500-1500

  • Re-emergence of Archives, 1500-1789

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Re emergence

RE-EMERGENCE

  • Establishment of well-defined archives

    Archivo General de Simancas

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Re emergence1

RE-EMERGENCE

  • Establishment of well-defined archives

    Archivo General de Simancas

  • Diplomatics, De Re Diplomatica, 1681

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Epochs in the development of archival and records enterprise4

Epochs in the Development ofArchival and Records Enterprise

  • Establishment of Modern Archival Practice, 1789-1898

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Establishment of modern archival practice

ESTABLISHMENT OF MODERN ARCHIVAL PRACTICE

  • Archives Nationales (France), 1794

  • Concept of “current” and “historical”

  • Archives as expression of nationalism

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Establishment of modern archival practice1

ESTABLISHMENT OF MODERN ARCHIVAL PRACTICE

  • Basic principles

    Respect des fonds

    Provenance—original order

  • Ecole des Chartes, 1832

  • Dutch manual of practice, 1898

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Establishment of modern archival practice2

ESTABLISHMENT OF MODERN ARCHIVAL PRACTICE

American contribution

  • Collecting documents

  • Printing documents to facilitate use and preservation

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Epochs in the development of archival and records enterprise5

Epochs in the Development ofArchival and Records Enterprise

  • Establishment of Modern Archival Practice, 1789-1898

  • Redefining Archives and Managing Bulk: Archival Administration and Records Management, c. 1900-continuing

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Redefining archives and managing bulk

REDEFINING ARCHIVES AND MANAGING BULK

Factors

  • New Media

  • Growth of business and government

  • Spread of literacy

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Redefining archives and managing bulk1

REDEFINING ARCHIVES AND MANAGING BULK

Growth in Quantity of Records

  • 1789-1861 = 100,000 cubic feet

  • 1865-1914 = 500,000 cubic feet

  • 1930s decade = 3.5 million cubic feet

  • 1940s per year = 2 million cubic feet

  • 1960s per year = 4 million cubic feet

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Redefining archives and managing bulk2

REDEFINING ARCHIVES AND MANAGING BULK

New kinds of records

  • Memorandum

  • Chart and Graph

  • Directive

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Redefining archives and managing bulk3

REDEFINING ARCHIVES AND MANAGING BULK

New practices and concepts

  • Defining archives as historical documents

  • Archival appraisal

  • Records management

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Redefining archives and managing bulk4

REDEFINING ARCHIVES AND MANAGING BULK

Records Management

  • Records Disposal Act, 1943

  • General schedule, 1945

  • Records Center, 1950

  • Developed concepts to promote office efficiency, protection

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Redefining archives and managing bulk5

REDEFINING ARCHIVES AND MANAGING BULK

Professionalization of records work

  • Royal Dutch Society of Archivists, 1891

  • Society of American Archivists, 1936

  • International Council on Archives, 1950

  • Association of Records Managers and Administrators, 1955

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Epochs in the development of archival and records enterprise6

Epochs in the Development ofArchival and Records Enterprise

  • Establishment of Modern Archival Practice, 1789-1898

  • Redefining Archives and Managing Bulk: Archival Administration and Records Management, c. 1900-continuing

  • Age of the Electronic Record, 1980s-continuing

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Electronic records age

ELECTRONIC RECORDS AGE

  • Machine-readable records

  • Radically new form/media of record

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Conclusions

CONCLUSIONS

DEPTH AND EXTENT OF CHANGE

  • First: Writing as basis of authentic information, c. 1000-c. 1300

  • Second: Modern concepts of managing records, 1789-1898

  • Third: Electronic record, 1990s-

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Conclusions1

CONCLUSIONS

FUNDAMENTAL ISSUES

  • Defining and establishing ownership of “the record”

  • Authenticity, security, and preservation

  • Adopting, adapting to, and controlling records in new media

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Conclusions2

CONCLUSIONS

FUNDAMENTAL ISSUES

  • Role of archives in society

  • Uses of the term “archives”

  • Managing yet increasing volume of records

  • Role of the archivist/records administrator

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