Knee examination dr kholoud al zain
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Knee Examination Dr.Kholoud Al- Zain. Acknowledgment: Dr. Abdulaziz Alomar. General MSK Physical Examination P rinciples for Lower Examination. Exposure Bilateral limb examination Anterior and posterior Gait LLD NV examination Joint above and joint below. Gait . Antalgic gait.

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Knee Examination Dr.Kholoud Al- Zain

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Knee examination dr kholoud al zain

Knee ExaminationDr.Kholoud Al-Zain

Acknowledgment:

Dr.Abdulaziz Alomar


General msk physical examination p rinciples for lower examination

General MSK Physical Examination Principles for Lower Examination

  • Exposure

  • Bilateral limb examination

  • Anterior and posterior

  • Gait

  • LLD

  • NV examination

  • Joint above and joint below


Knee examination dr kholoud al zain

Gait

  • Antalgicgait


Knee examination

Knee Examination

  • Look (Inspection)

  • Feel (Palpation)

  • Move

  • Special tests


Inspection look

Inspection (Look)

  • Deformity

  • Scars

  • Swelling

  • Skin colour changes

  • Muscle wasting


Muscle wasting

Muscle wasting


Deformity

Deformity

Deformity


Scars

Scars


Localize swelling

Localize Swelling


Defuse swelling effusion

Defuse swelling (Effusion)


Feel palpation

Feel (palpation)

  • Temperature

  • Tenderness

  • Effusion


Tenderness

Tenderness

  • Soft tissue

  • Bony prominences

  • Joint line


Surface anatomy

Surface anatomy


Joint line palpation

Joint line palpation


Effusion

Effusion

Ballotment

Milking


Knee examination dr kholoud al zain

MOVE

Active ROM

Passive ROM


Knee examination dr kholoud al zain

ROM

  • Flexion contracture

  • Extension lag


Special tests

Special tests

  • Ligaments (stability):

    • ACL (Anterior Cruciate Ligament)

    • PCL (Posterior Cruciate Ligament)

    • MCL (Medial Collateral Ligament)

    • LCL (Lateral Collateral Ligament)

  • meniscus

  • Patellofemoral joint


Acl anterior cruciate ligament

ACL (anterior cruciate ligament)

Anterior drawer test

  • Excessive forward movement of the tibia on the femur


Acl anterior cruciate ligament1

ACL (anterior cruciate ligament)

Lachman’s test

  • The most sensitive test for ACL rupture

  • Anterior Translation and end point (soft vs. hard)


Acl anterior cruciate ligament2

ACL (anterior cruciate ligament)

Pivot shift test:

When positive, it is painful

It needs experience to be able to elicit it


Pcl posterior cruciate ligament

PCL (posterior cruciate ligament)

Posterior drawer test

  • excessive backward movement of the tibia in relation to the femur.


Pcl posterior cruciate ligament1

PCL (posterior cruciate ligament)

Sagging sign:

  • compare both knees in 90 degrees of flexion.

  • In the injured knee the proximal tibia is displaced backwards compared to the other side.


Knee examination dr kholoud al zain

MCL

Full extension

15 degree flexion


Knee examination dr kholoud al zain

LCL

Full extension

15 degree of flextion


Meniscus

Meniscus

  • Joint line tenderness:

    • Tenderness in the medial joint line (medial meniscus)

    • Tenderness in the lateral joint line (lateral meniscus)

  • McMurrey’s test for medial and lateral meniscus


Patella apprehension test

Patella apprehension test


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