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Smoking and Infectious Disease. Tuberculosis and Legionnaires\' Disease. Tuberculosis . Mycobacterium Tuberculosis  Aerosol transmission Latent vs. active tuberculosis. The association between smoking and tuberculosis has been investigated since 1918 . Tuberculosis Diagnosis .

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smoking and infectious disease

Smoking and Infectious Disease

Tuberculosis and Legionnaires\'

Disease

tuberculosis
Tuberculosis 
  • Mycobacterium Tuberculosis 
  • Aerosol transmission
  • Latent vs. active tuberculosis
tuberculosis diagnosis
Tuberculosis Diagnosis 
  • Latent TB granulomas can be seen on a chest xray
  •  Mantoux skin test

http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/idepc/diseases/tb/tst.html

http://www.cmaj.ca/content/169/9/937.full

tuberculosis treatment
Tuberculosis Treatment
  • Suggested treatment according to the CDC includes:
    • ACTIVE-- 
      • isoniazid (INH)
      • rifampin (RIF)
      • ethambutol (EMB)
      • pyrazinamide (PZA)
    • LATENT--
      • isoniazid (INH)
tuberculosis prevalence
Tuberculosis Prevalence
  • Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most important infectious diseases in the world in terms of morbidity and mortality
  • In 2008, the number of deaths due to TB was estimated at 1.8 million by the World Health Organization (WHO) 
  • In 2008, an estimated 0.48 million new cases occurred in South Africa and, currently, the country ranks third after India and China in terms of total number of annual incident cases of TB
slide8

Active Tuberculosis

Studies Reviewed

slide11

Latent

Tuberculosis

Studies Reviewed

slide12
High prevalence of smoking among patients with suspected tuberculosis in South AfricaBurnet, et al.--2011
slide13
The impact of smoking on adherence to treatment for latent tuberculosis infectionLavigne, et al.--2005
slide14

Relapse of

Tuberculosis

Studies Reviewed

smoking increases the risk of relapse after successful tuberculosis treatment batista et al 2008
Smoking increases the risk of relapse after successful tuberculosis treatmentBatista, et al.--2008
slide16
Comparison of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis in Nepal- a hospital-based retrospective studySreeramareddy, et al.--2008
  • Smokers less likely to have isolated extrapulmonary TB
  • History of TB associated with pulmonary TB
    • No identification if this was a relapse or reinfection
    • Reinfection more common in high burden countries
slide17

Mortality from

Tuberculosis

Studies Reviewed

slide18
Smoking and risk of tuberculosis incidence, mortality, and recurrence in South Korean men and womenJee, et al.--2009
slide19

Smoking and mortality from tuberculosis and other diseases in India: retrospective study of 43 000 adult male deaths and 35 000 controlsGajalakshmi, et al.--2009

slide20

Barcelona

Tuberculosis Data

Reviewed/ Analyzed

slide21
Tuberculosis and recurrence and its associated risk factors among successfully treated patientsMillet, et al.--2009
analysis of recent data collected by the barcelona public health agency
Analysis of recent data collected by the Barcelona Public Health Agency
  • Data collected on 5,141 males and females living in Barcelona
  • SPSS used to calculate frequencies and percentages for the following associations:
    • OUTCOME and:
      • sex, country of origin, diabetes status, alcohol, homelessness, DOT therapy, imprisonment status, HIV status, and smoking status
    • SMOKING STATUS and:
      • sex, country of origin, diabetes status, alcohol, homelessness, DOT therapy, imprisonment status, and HIV status
legionnaires disease
Legionnaires’ Disease
  • Legionella pneumophila
  • Low reporting rate
  • Can be lethal
  • Aerosol transmission
  • Risk factors:
    • Old age
    • Smoking
    • Chronic lung disease
    • Immunosuppression
legionnaires diagnosis and treatment
Legionnaires’ Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Diagnosis
    • Chest x-ray
    • Sputum culture
    • Urinary antigen test
    • Blood antibody test
  • Treatment
    • Antibiotics

http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/phil/html/legionnaires-disease/192.html

slide28
Sporadic community-acquired Legionnaires’ disease in France: a 2-year national matched case-control studyChe, et al.--2008
analysis of recent data collected by the barcelona public health agency1
Analysis of recent data collected by the Barcelona Public Health Agency
  • Data collected on 1,018 males and females living in Barcelona
  • SPSS used to calculate frequencies and percentages for the following associations:
    • OUTCOME and:
      • sex, country of origin, diabetes status, alcohol, cardiopulmonary disease, immunosuppressive treatment and disease, renal transplant, cancer status, and smoking status
    • SMOKING STATUS and:
      • sex, country of origin, diabetes status, alcohol, cardiopulmonary disease, immunosuppressive treatment and disease, renal transplant, cancer status
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements 
  • Josep M. Antó, Carme Borrell, Joana Porcel and CREAL staff
  • Joan A. Caylà
  • Angeles Orcau
  • Cecilia Tortasada
  • Lourdes Baezconde-Garbanati
  • Kathleen Dwyer
  • Daniel Soto and Camille Dennard
  • Rosa Barahona
references
References
  • Tuberculosis (TB) (2009, June 1). In Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved July 11, 2011, from http://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/basics/default.htm
  •   Associations between tobacco and tuberculosis. Chiang CY, Slama K, Enarson DA. International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Paris, France. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2007 Mar;11(3):258-62.   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.libproxy.usc.edu/pubmed/17352089
  • Batista, J. L., Albuquerque, M. P., Ximenes, R. A., & Rodrigues, L. C. (2008, August). Smoking increases the risk of relapse after successful tuberculosis treatment. Int J Epidemiol, 37(4), 841-851. doi:10.1093/ije/dyn113
  • Brunet, L., Pai, M., Davids, V., Ling, D., Paradis, G., Lenders, L., & Meldau, R. (2011, July). High prevalence of smoking among patients with suspected tuberculosis in South Africa [Electronic version]. Eur Respir J., 38(1), 139-146.
  • Kolappan, C., & Gopi, P. G. Tobacco smoking and pulmonary tuberculosis. Thorax, 57(11), 964-966. Retrieved from PubMed (12403879).
  • Lavigne, M., Rocher, I., Steensma, C., & Brassard, P. (2006, March). The impact of smoking on adherence to treatment for latent tuberculosis infection [Electronic version]. BMC Public Health., 6, 66.
  • Sreeramareddy, C. T., Panduru, K. V., Verma, S. C., Joshi, H. S., & Bates, M. N. (2008, January). Comparison of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis in Nepal-a  hospital-based retrospective study. BMC Infect Dis., 8, 8. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-8-8
  • Thomas, A., Gopi, P. G., Santha, T., Chandrasekaran, V., Subramani, R., Selvakumar, N., & Eusuff, S. I. (2005, May). Predictors of relapse among pulmonary tuberculosis patients treated in a DOTS programme in South India [Electronic version]. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis., 9(5), 556-561.
  • Gajalakshmi, V., Peto, R., Kanaka, T. S., & Jha, P. (2003, August 16). Smoking and mortality from tuberculosis and other diseases in India: retrospective study of 43000 adult male deaths and 35000 controls [Electronic version]. Lancet, 362(9383), 507-515.
  • Millet, J. P., Orcau, A., Garcia de Olalla, P., Casals, M., Rius, C., & Cayla, J. A. (2009). Tuberculosis recurrence and its associated risk factors among successfully treated patients. J Epidemiol Community Health, 63, 799-804. doi:10.1136/jech.2008.077560
  • Che, D., Campese, C., Santa-Olalla, P., Jacquier, G., Bitar, D., Bernillon, P., & Desenclos, J. C. (2008, December). Sporadic community-acquired Legionnaires\' disease in France: a 2-year national matched case-control study [Electronic version]. Epidemiol Infect., 136(12), 1684-1690.
  • Patient Facts: Learn More about Legionnaires\' disease. (2011, June). In Legionellosis Resource Site (Legionnaires\' Disease and Pontiac Fever). Retrieved July 14, 2011, from http://www.cdc.gov/legionella/patient_facts.htm
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