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Understanding the Cambridge Phenomenon - Importance for enterprise development. Dr Shailendra Vyakarnam. Who. Pracademic – Dir of Centre for Entrepreneurial Learning Initiated courses in entrepreneurship/enterprise for students and staff – primarily in S.E.T disciplines Transitions

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Understanding the cambridge phenomenon importance for enterprise development l.jpg

Understanding the Cambridge Phenomenon - Importance for enterprise development

Dr Shailendra Vyakarnam


Slide2 l.jpg
Who enterprise development

  • Pracademic –

  • Dir of Centre for Entrepreneurial Learning

  • Initiated courses in entrepreneurship/enterprise for students and staff – primarily in S.E.T disciplines

  • Transitions

  • Tristart

  • Mentor to several entrepreneurs, management teams and provide management development to smaller and mid-sized companies

  • Presentation based on paper in J of Strategic Change – top 50 most cited management papers in 2005


Purpose l.jpg
Purpose enterprise development

  • Origins in asking for an explanation for the Cambridge Phenomenon and the anecdotal reverence given to entrepreneurs….

  • Local Assets? (apart from a famous University)

    • experience, social capital, nutrient rich networks

  • Curiosity about gaining a better understanding of social capital and

  • Thinking about the Implications for teaching, policy and research


Slide4 l.jpg

Source: ABI, LFS, PACEC


Number of high tech firms in cambridge l.jpg
Number of high tech firms in Cambridge enterprise development

1600

800

300

200

8% of

EU VC

In 2005/6

1960 1970 1980 1990 2000


Yin m myint shailendra vyakarnam l.jpg

Principal Components That Caused And Shaped Cambridge Phenomenon After 1960s

Yin M. Myint, Shailendra Vyakarnam

Cambridge

University

MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology

Sinclair Radionics

Cambridge Interactive System

1960

CCL

Sinclair Research Ltd

CAD

Centre

Barclays Bank

1970

Glaxo

Cambridge Science Park

PA Technology

Nickerson Biotech Laboratory

Eicon Research Ltd

Analysys

Acorn

Hitachi Cambridge Laboratory

Olivetti Research Laboratory (acquired by AT&T in 1999)

BP

1980

Institute of Biotechnology

Seiko Epson Research Lab

Judge Institute of Management Studies

St. John Innovation Centre

Scientific Generics

TTP Ventures

Cantab Pharmaceuticals

Toshiba Cambridge Research Laboratory

Glaxo Institute of Applied Pharmacology

The Technology Partnership

TTP

Cambridge Research and Innovation Ltd (CRIL)

1990

Amadeus Capital Partners

Unilever Cambridge Centre for Molecular Informatics

Institute of Manufacturing

Entropic Research Laboratory (acquired by Microsoft in 1999)

Cambridge Network

2000


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Why? Phenomenon After 1960s

  • Curious about the disconnection between policy and outcomes – SME vs Entrepreneur development

  • Growing importance to understand how to nurture the formation and development of clusters

  • Learn about issues of the development of human capital

  • Learn how and why these people did what they did

  • The teaching model at CfEL – from those with more experience to those with less – so what do they know and what should the next generation know?

  • Connect the novice with the experienced – build local social capital


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Method Phenomenon After 1960s

Segal Quince Wicksteed

(1985)’s a complex ``family tree'' of start-ups and spinouts

Rosa and Scott (1999) to determine the prevalence of multiple directorship

Explored the rate of multiple directorships as a proxy for multiple business ownership amongst the directors of small firms.

Showed how many firms could trace their origin back to Cambridge University.

  • Mapping of the start-ups/spin-outs where key individuals were involved.

  • Identification of key individuals who influence multiple companies.

  • Links of entrepreneurs with prior association.

  • Mapping the level of interconnectivity between companies in a cluster as a measure of its social infrastructure.


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Yin M. Myint, Shailendra Vyakarnam Phenomenon After 1960s

Steve Barlow

Robert Swann

Caroline Garey

Phil O’ Donovan

James Collier

Glenn Collinson

Aphamosaic

Smartbead Technologies

Andrew Dames

Acquired by Synaptics

Polatis

Cambridge Silicon Radio

Mark Howard

Richard Doyle

Acquired by Elumin founded by Dr. Hans Wagner

Holotag

Chris Davies

Andrew Dames

Sensopad Technologies

Cyan Technology

Sentec

Stuart Hendry

Gavin Troughton

Pelikon

Andrew Dames

Chris Fryer

Chris Barnardo

Absolute Sensors

Adrian Lucas

Sphere Medical

Mike Willis

Roger Millar

Pivotal Resources

Imerge

David Paton

Mike Willis

Steve Temple

David Bending

Roundpoint

3D Molecular Sciences

Cambridge Physical Sciences

INCA Digital Printers

Xaar

Dr. Gordon Edge, Bob Pettigrew

Elizabeth Hill

Mark Tracy

Scientific Generics

Nigel Playford

Bill Baxter

Will Eve

Paul Anson

Mike Payne

Prelude

Dr. Robert Hook

QuantumBEAM

Gordon Edge, Bob Pettigrew, Alan Green

Ionica

Graham Martin

Colin Gray

Will Eve

Dr. Gordon Edge

Tim Eiloart

Adaptive Screening

ELMJET

CCL

1960

Diomed Tony Raven

PA

1970

Flying Null

Mike Crossfield

Acquired by Videojet Technologies

Graeme Minto

David Paton

Domino

TTP

Tim Eiloart

Gerald Avison

Ross Green, Mike Kellaway

Dr. Robin

Smith-Saville

Wavedriver

Acquired by PowerGen

DCS

Cambridge

Mass Spectrometry

Signal Process Ltd

Mike Stroey

Automation Partnership

Richard Archer

Until 1985

Symbionics

Xennia Technologies

Dr. Collin Smithers

Demerged from TTP Group

Dennis Fielder

Alan Hudd

Plextek

TTPCom

1986-1990

Myriad

Tony Millbourn

Transversal

John Cassells

Barrie Griffiths

Steve Mullock

David Yip

David McKay

Kore Technology

ip.access

1991-1995

Acquired by Mettler-Toledo

Acquired by Cadence

Ubinetics

Ali Pourtaheri

TTP Ventures

Acumen Bioscience

Tality

1996-2000

David Cornell

TTP LabTech

Richard Philpott

John Cassells

Yuno Ltd

Radiant Networks

Vivid

Creativity Partnership

Stephen Eason

Fen Technology

Anne Miller

Acquired by Vetura

2001-2002


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RealVNC Phenomenon After 1960s

Virtual Network Computing

Andy Hopper

Steve Pope

Merged with Globespan

Level5Network

Andy Hopper

Peter Warton

Ubisense

Andy Hopper

Andy Hopper

Andy Ward

Pete Steggles

Cambridge Broadband

Andy Hopper

IPV (Telemedia Systems)

Hermann Hauser

Andy Hopper

Acquired by Western Multiplex Corp

Acquired by American Microwave

Acquired by AT &T

Virata(ATML)

Adaptive Broadband

Simon Elliot

TerraPrise

Amadeus Capital

Partners

Lily Cheng

James Hay

VBN online

Olivetti Research Lab

Hermann Hauser

Tensails

nCipher

Splashpower

Richard Green

Andy Hopper

Alex Van

Someren

Robin Saxby

Acquired by Broadcom

Acquired by GE

Michael Pepper

Don Arnone

ARM

ANT

Element 14

Small World

Acquired by Olivetti

Teraview

Richard Green

Authur Chance

Alex Van Someren

Niko

Stan Boland

DakoCytomation - Merged with Cytomation Inc

Cambridge Interactive Systems

Part of DAKO Diagnostics

John Snyder

Charles Lang

Webtop

Shape Data

Acorn

Hermann Hauser, Chris Keightley

Hermann

Hauser

IQ Bio

Peter Duffett-Smith

Acquired by

NTL

Smartlogik

Acquired by Dialog

CAD

Netchannel

CPS

Hermann Hauser

Jack Lang

Hermann Hauser

Jack Lang

Cambridge

University

Top express

Jack Lang

Electronic Share Information

Acquired by E* Trade

Muscat

Analysys

CDT

Until 1985

John Snyder

Dr. Martin Porter

Enterprise Accelerator

David Cleevely

Richard Friend

John Snyder

Cambridge Semiconductor

1986-1990

Richard Friend

Adam Twiss

David Reeves

Zeus Technology

Plastic Logic

Cambridge Network

Gehan Amaratunga

Florin Udrea

Pilgrim Beart

David Cleevely

Hermann Hauser

Alec Broers

ActiveRF

ART

1991-1995

Cambridge 3G

Daniel Hall

Collin Ager

Garraint Davies

Virtual Business Network

Antenova

Saviso Group

David Cleevely

Innovia

Pilgrim Beart

Polight Technologies

Adam Twiss

Bryan Amesbury

David Cleevely

SimonElliot

1996-2000

Stephen Elliott

Pavel Krecmer

2001-2002


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Yin M. Myint, Shailendra Vyakarnam Phenomenon After 1960s

Acquired by Becker Underwood

William Bains

John Caldwell

Iain Cubitt

Greg Winter

Pestex

Changed its name to MicroBio Group

Diversys

Merged with Xenova Group Ltd

Amedis pharmaceutical

RiboTargets

Chris Evans

Merlin Ventures

Simon Sturge

Chris Evans

Iain Cubitt

Chris Evans

Martin Davies

Acquired by Prometic Biosciences Inc

Cerebrus

Celsis

Axis Genetcs

Toad

Greg Winter

Daivd Chiswell

Chris Evans

BioRobotics

Chris Lowe

J. McCann

ChiroTech

CAT

Cambridge Sensors

Chris Evans

Rapigene

Celltech

Alan Munro

Chris Lowe

Enviros

Chris Evans

Smart Holograms

Merged by Celltech Group

Cantab Pharmaceuticals

Enzymatix

Chris Lowe

Ken Jones

Chiroscience

MRC LMB

1960s

Affinity chromatography

AGC

1984

Alan Goodman

Chris Evans

Chris Lowe

David Bailey

Purely Proteins

Daniel Roach

Alan Goodman

Alan Goodman

(FD)

Philip Dean

David Bailey

Cambridge

University

De Novo

CeNes

AdproTech

Alan Goodman

ATM

Peter Lachmann

CORE

Until 1985

Biotica Technology

Alan Goodman

Alan Goodman

LINDCO

Peter Leadlay

Jim Staunton

Kudos Pharmaceuticals

Oxford Bimedica

Alan Goodman

Mark Bodmer

Stephen Jackson

1986-1990

Hexagen

Peptide Therapeutics

Now Acambis

Acquired by Incyte

Avlar BioVentures

Metris Therapeutics

Lorantis

Alan Goodman

Daniel Roach

Mark Bodmer

1991-1995

Daniel Roach

Alan Goodman

Amura

Paradigm Therapeutics

Stephen Smith

Steve Charnock-Jones

Salix pharmaceutical

Alan Goodman

Holometrica

Dr. Mark Carlton

Astex Technology

Roger Millington

Solexa

Sense Proteomics

Alan Goodman

1996-2000

Abcam

Shankar Balasubramanian

Jonathan

Milner

Prof. Blundell

Chris Abell

Harren Jhoti

Jonathan

Blackburn

Akubio

2001-2002

Matthew Cooper

David Klenerman

Tony Minson

Daniolabs

Paul Goldsmith


Slide13 l.jpg

Richard Phenomenon After 1960s

Youell

Hermann Hauser

Graham O'Keeffe

Gordon Edge

Robert

Hook

4 links & above

Andrew Dames

Sir Alec Broers

3 links

Jack Lang

Jamie

Urquhart

2 links

Bob

Pettigrew

1 link

Nigel Berry

Richard King

Phil O'Donovan

Stephen

Ives

Laurence Garrett

Duncan

Stewart

Gerald

Avison

Robin

Saxby

Mike Muller

Charles Cotton

Chris

Wade

Pilgrim Beart

John Paul

Auton

David Cleevely

Andy

Hopper

Dr. Peter J. Duffett-Smith

Stephen

Elliott

Peter Wynn

Alex Van Someren

Richard Friend

Robert

Swann

Ray

Anderson

Simon

Segars

Michael Ledzion

Structural and relational social capital in the hi-tech cluster

LORANTIS


Slide14 l.jpg

Norwich and Peterborough Building Society Phenomenon After 1960s

Some individuals involved in Acorn -1978

St John’s Innovation Centre -

Barclays Bank

Matthew Bullock

Andy Ward

Rupert Curwen,

Paul Webster,

Pete Steggles

Andy Harter

Tristan Richardson

James Weatherall

Acquired in 1985

Walter Herriot

University of Cambridge

Hermann Hauser

Olivetti, acquired by AT&T in 1999

Jack Lang

Steve Pope

Derek Roberts

David Riddoch

Andy Hopper

Orbis 1978

Mike Muller

ARM -1990

Sophie Wilson

Robin Saxby &

Engineers from Acorn

Tudor

Brown

Steve Furber

Virata (ATML)- 1993

Chris Curry

Peter

Wynn

Alex Van Someren

Sinclair Research

Charles Cotton

Amadeus Capital Partners

Anne Glover

Element 14 - 1999

Electronic Share Information

Stan

Boland

ANT-1990

Source of Technology

Level 5 Network -2002

Movement of individuals from one organization to another

Real VNC

2002

Ubisense

2002

Start-ups

Acorn Cluster


Slide15 l.jpg

Social Network 1 Phenomenon After 1960s


Yin m myint shailendra vyakarnam16 l.jpg

How the Key Players involve and support the Cambridge Technopole

Yin M. Myint, Shailendra Vyakarnam

Cambridge entrepreneurs play several roles

COMPANY FOUNDERS

Strong

Academic

links

Business

angels

CAMBRIDGE

ENTREPRENEURS

Mentoring

Membership of Research

Organizations

Multiple

Directorships

Create a network of networks, exchanging knowledge, expertise and components of each other


Research implications l.jpg
Research implications Technopole

  • Importance of social capital in the creation of an enabling ecosystem for enterprise

  • Pathways of innovation

  • Location of expertise within certain domains

  • Gender issues; Highly skilled migrant visas – brain circulation

  • Tacit knowledge – relevance to knowledge transfer

  • Location of the firm within these networks and GDP value of networks

  • Causality studies

  • Corporate governance issues


Policy research implications l.jpg
Policy research implications Technopole

  • Drill into local landscape to really understand what is going on –

    • study replicated to Lowestoft and Waveney…

    • 10 year view – Schools - Champions

  • See the work of Dale Meyer (Colorado) Anna Lee Saxenian (Bekeley)

  • Birth rate strategies for Regions – look at needs of individuals as sources of inspiration and excellence – as important as sectoral investment

  • Nurture pre-existing networks

  • Temporal effects of clusters, technopoles – needs to be recognised by policy makers

  • Multiple Directorships – review the meaning of “Incubators” (see tech transfer conference at Kaufman – Kansas City)

  • Multiple Roles


Teaching l.jpg
Teaching Technopole

  • Work with serial entrepreneurs to help with “teaching” and provide an ecosystem in which students can learn, be inspired and consider implementation.

  • Strong basis of curriculum – understanding “path dependency” – source of insights – need to get beyond anecdotal and received wisdom of teaching

  • Separation of entrepreneurship education from Business Studies (also a view of Carl Schramm..)

  • Content

  • Credibility

  • Context

  • This kind of localised research helps find resources

    • Examples on www.cfel.jbs.cam.ac.uk


Five key elements to enterprise l.jpg
Five key Elements to enterprise Technopole

Motivation

And

Values

Intent

Skills

Risk

Appetite

Opportunity

Recognition


Slide21 l.jpg

The triple helix of self-efficacy: Technopole

Is there a supportive and

Enabling culture to make

This journey possible?

To Inspire

To Inform

To help Implement

Intent

Self Belief

Appraisals

Training

Opportunities

Confidence

Have tried it and succeeded

Building track record

Know How


Slide22 l.jpg

Business Skills Technopole



Slide24 l.jpg

Working together discussion

Solving problems

Social networks and connections


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Thank you! discussion

Happy to explore further:

Research – to be replicated – transfer methodology

Policy conference around social capital model of teaching

Training for enterprise development

Tristart as a tool for use by World Bank clients to help de-risk while improving provision

[email protected]

PS – more conclusion if we want them!


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