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Role of Beef Cattle. agriculture – 17.5 % of GNP. beef industry – single largest money making-generating commodity in all of agriculture. Beef accounts for 40-45% of cash receipts from animal agriculture. $35 billion. Role of Beef Cattle.

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Role of Beef Cattle

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Role of Beef Cattle

  • agriculture – 17.5 % of GNP.

  • beef industry – single largest money making-generating commodity in all of agriculture.

  • Beef accounts for 40-45% of cash receipts from animal agriculture.

    • $35 billion


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Role of Beef Cattle

  • 1.2 billion acres of agricultural land in the 48 contiguous states.

    • 801 million acres of this is grazed.

  • Vast supplies of waste materials from:

    • Agronomic crops

      • Corn stalks

      • Wheat straw

    • Food by products

      • Cannery waste

      • Brewer’s grains, Distillers Grains***

      • Sugar beet pulp

      • Corn Gluten, Soybean Hulls, Cottonseed Hulls


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Historical Evolution

  • Origin of today’s breeds?

    • Bos Taurus

      • Aurochs – extinct in 1627

      • Celtic Ox (mixed in with Aurochs)

    • Bos Indicus

      • Tropical Zebu cattle


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Historical Evolution

  • First cattle producer of the Western Hemisphere

    • Christopher Columbus

      • brought cattle to the West Indies in 1493

    • Cortez

      • brought cattle to Mexico in 1519

  • Longhorns were distributed by Spanish missionaries.


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Historical Evolution

  • Shifts in U.S. cattle industry

    • Post Civil War

      • Longhorn >>>> Shorthorn

      • Shorthorn >>>> Shorthorn X Hereford

    • Winter of 1886

      • Shorthorn X Hereford >>>> Angus X Hereford

    • Post World War II

      • Angus X Hereford >>>> “Breeds Revolution”


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Historical Evolution

  • “Breeds Revolution” – period of great expansion in numbers of breeds of beef cattle.

  • Demand for grain-fed beef

    • Meat from cattle which have undergone a significant grain feeding.


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Beef Cattle Breeds

  • See web site:http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/index.htm

  • Breed – animals of common origin with characteristics that distinguish them from other group of same species

    - > 300 world-wide


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Most US cattle are commercial/crossbred

Beef Cattle Breeds

  • Purebred – purity of ancestry; pedigrees recorded in their breed registry

  • Commercial – livestock not registered or pedigreed; crossbred


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Beef Cattle Breeds (identify & know purpose)

  • 3 general categories:

    • British breeds (Bos taurus)– Angus, Hereford, Shorthorn

      • maternal – fertility, longevity, milk production

      • earlier maturity (puberty); less muscular

    • Exotic or Continental breeds (Bos taurus) – Simmental,

      Limousin, Charolais, etc.

      • paternal (terminal) - growth rate, muscular, lean; large mature size

      • dual – purpose (maternal and paternal traits)


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Beef Cattle Breeds (identify & know purpose)

  • Brahman (Bos indicus) – Zebu is main strain

    • greatest genetic influence world-wide

    • heat and insect tolerant; adaptable to warm environments

    • later puberty, low growth rate, less muscling


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Angus

  • British breed

  • 1st in US registrations

  • black & polled

  • moderate size

  • MARBLING

  • Hereford x Angus =

    black baldy (white face)

    - good mothers

  • Red Angus – 6th


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Hereford

  • British breed

  • red body & white face; polled & horned

  • 2nd in registrations

  • moderate size

  • major breed influence in commercial cows (esp. western range)

  • Polled and horned


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Shorthorn

  • British

  • Prominent US breed in 1800s, early 1900s

  • red, white, roan

  • horned/polled

  • excellent milk production

  • 8th most popular today


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Simmental

  • Continental (Europe)

  • Switzerland

  • red, yellow, black/white

  • dual-purpose

    • growth, carcass

    • milk production

  • large mature size

  • Dual purpose – 4th most popular

  • Others – Gelbvieh (7th)


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Limousin

  • Continental

  • France

  • red, gold, black

  • lean, muscular

  • excel in yield grades

  • terminal sire

  • 5th most popular


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Charolais

  • Continental

  • France

  • white with pink nose

  • large size

  • lean & muscular

  • terminal sire

  • 3rd most popular

  • Others=Chianina


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Brahman

  • Bos indicus

  • hump; loose hide; long ears

  • heat/insect tolerant

  • southern US – 13th popular

  • late maturity, less muscling

  • tenderness problems

  • Beefmaster is most common breed = 10th most popular

    • Developed in USA, combination of Brahman, Hereford and Shorthorn

    • Others are Brangus – 9th

    • Simbrah, Santa Gertrudis

    • Braford, Charbray, etc..


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Beef Breed Registrations in the USA, Table 16-3

2

1

1

2

10

9

3

3

7

2

2

1

1

5

6

8

3

6

4


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