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Role of Beef Cattle. agriculture – 17.5 % of GNP. beef industry – single largest money making-generating commodity in all of agriculture. Beef accounts for 40-45% of cash receipts from animal agriculture. $35 billion. Role of Beef Cattle.

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role of beef cattle
Role of Beef Cattle
  • agriculture – 17.5 % of GNP.
  • beef industry – single largest money making-generating commodity in all of agriculture.
  • Beef accounts for 40-45% of cash receipts from animal agriculture.
    • $35 billion
role of beef cattle2
Role of Beef Cattle
  • 1.2 billion acres of agricultural land in the 48 contiguous states.
    • 801 million acres of this is grazed.
  • Vast supplies of waste materials from:
    • Agronomic crops
      • Corn stalks
      • Wheat straw
    • Food by products
      • Cannery waste
      • Brewer’s grains, Distillers Grains***
      • Sugar beet pulp
      • Corn Gluten, Soybean Hulls, Cottonseed Hulls
historical evolution
Historical Evolution
  • Origin of today’s breeds?
    • Bos Taurus
      • Aurochs – extinct in 1627
      • Celtic Ox (mixed in with Aurochs)
    • Bos Indicus
      • Tropical Zebu cattle
historical evolution4
Historical Evolution
  • First cattle producer of the Western Hemisphere
    • Christopher Columbus
      • brought cattle to the West Indies in 1493
    • Cortez
      • brought cattle to Mexico in 1519
  • Longhorns were distributed by Spanish missionaries.
historical evolution5
Historical Evolution
  • Shifts in U.S. cattle industry
    • Post Civil War
      • Longhorn >>>> Shorthorn
      • Shorthorn >>>> Shorthorn X Hereford
    • Winter of 1886
      • Shorthorn X Hereford >>>> Angus X Hereford
    • Post World War II
      • Angus X Hereford >>>> “Breeds Revolution”
historical evolution6
Historical Evolution
  • “Breeds Revolution” – period of great expansion in numbers of breeds of beef cattle.
  • Demand for grain-fed beef
    • Meat from cattle which have undergone a significant grain feeding.
beef cattle breeds
Beef Cattle Breeds
  • See web site:http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/index.htm
  • Breed – animals of common origin with characteristics that distinguish them from other group of same species

- > 300 world-wide

beef cattle breeds8

Most US cattle are commercial/crossbred

Beef Cattle Breeds
  • Purebred – purity of ancestry; pedigrees recorded in their breed registry
  • Commercial – livestock not registered or pedigreed; crossbred
beef cattle breeds identify know purpose
Beef Cattle Breeds (identify & know purpose)
  • 3 general categories:
    • British breeds (Bos taurus)– Angus, Hereford, Shorthorn
      • maternal – fertility, longevity, milk production
      • earlier maturity (puberty); less muscular
    • Exotic or Continental breeds (Bos taurus) – Simmental,

Limousin, Charolais, etc.

      • paternal (terminal) - growth rate, muscular, lean; large mature size
      • dual – purpose (maternal and paternal traits)
beef cattle breeds identify know purpose10
Beef Cattle Breeds (identify & know purpose)
  • Brahman (Bos indicus) – Zebu is main strain
    • greatest genetic influence world-wide
    • heat and insect tolerant; adaptable to warm environments
    • later puberty, low growth rate, less muscling
angus
Angus
  • British breed
  • 1st in US registrations
  • black & polled
  • moderate size
  • MARBLING
  • Hereford x Angus =

black baldy (white face)

- good mothers

  • Red Angus – 6th
hereford
Hereford
  • British breed
  • red body & white face; polled & horned
  • 2nd in registrations
  • moderate size
  • major breed influence in commercial cows (esp. western range)
  • Polled and horned
shorthorn
Shorthorn
  • British
  • Prominent US breed in 1800s, early 1900s
  • red, white, roan
  • horned/polled
  • excellent milk production
  • 8th most popular today
simmental
Simmental
  • Continental (Europe)
  • Switzerland
  • red, yellow, black/white
  • dual-purpose
    • growth, carcass
    • milk production
  • large mature size
  • Dual purpose – 4th most popular
  • Others – Gelbvieh (7th)
limousin
Limousin
  • Continental
  • France
  • red, gold, black
  • lean, muscular
  • excel in yield grades
  • terminal sire
  • 5th most popular
charolais
Charolais
  • Continental
  • France
  • white with pink nose
  • large size
  • lean & muscular
  • terminal sire
  • 3rd most popular
  • Others=Chianina
brahman
Brahman
  • Bos indicus
  • hump; loose hide; long ears
  • heat/insect tolerant
  • southern US – 13th popular
  • late maturity, less muscling
  • tenderness problems
  • Beefmaster is most common breed = 10th most popular
    • Developed in USA, combination of Brahman, Hereford and Shorthorn
    • Others are Brangus – 9th
    • Simbrah, Santa Gertrudis
    • Braford, Charbray, etc..
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