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Reproduction. Male. Male. Role of the male. Produce ample amounts of viable sperm Willing and able to deliver semen (containing sperm) to female to AI. Anatomy of MALE. Paired TESTES Epididimyis Vas deferens

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Reproduction l.jpg



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Role of the male

  • Produce ample amounts of viable sperm

  • Willing and able to deliver semen (containing sperm)

    • to female

    • to AI

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Anatomy of MALE

  • Paired TESTES

  • Epididimyis

  • Vas deferens

  • Penis

  • Scrotum

  • Accessory Sex Glands

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  • Testes descend from near kidney at or near birth

    • failure: monorchid or chryptorchid

  • Maintains temp 4-8° cooler than body

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Temp regulation in testes

  • External Cremaster muscle

    • contracts when cold, relaxes when warm

  • tunica dartos (smooth muscles in skin)

    • contract when cold

  • pampiniform plexus

    • heat exchanger in blood above testicle

    • esp. stallion & boar

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  • The major species differences are related to which accessory sex glands are present and the structure of the penis.

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  • Spermatogenesis occurs within the seminiferous tubules of the testes under the metablic and hormonal support of sustentacular and interstitial cells (Sertoli’s cells).

  • Sperm are stored and mature in the epididymes until resorption or ejaculation.

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  • Sperm are produced continually in great numbers

    • Bull = 5 BILLION sperm per ejaculate

  • Regulated by FSH

  • Cells of Leydig secrete testosterone

    • Regulated by LH

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  • Secretions of the accessory glands contribute to the formation of the semen.

  • The penis contains vascular and connective tissue specializations to produce erection which facilitates intromission.

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The mammalian male reproductive tract consists of the testes,

a duct system, and related glands.

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Testes & epididymis

Sperm are produced in the testis and mature in the epididymis.

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Ductus deferans (vas deferens)

The ductus deferens (vas deferens) propel sperm to the urethra

during ejaculation.

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Urinary Bladder

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The ampulla is a glandular region of the terminal portion of

the ductus deferens. It is absent in cats and pigs.

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The prostate gland empties into the urethra.

It provides the bulk of seminal fluid in most species.

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Vestibular glands(Seminal vessicles)

The vestibular glands vary greatly in size depending on the species.

They are absent in canines and felines.

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Bulbourethral gland

The bulbourethral glands are present in the pig,

equine and bovine, but missing in the canine.

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Pelvic symphysis

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Varies by species - Horse: erectile tissue, blood engorgement,

Ram & boar: less erectile tissue. Sigmoid flexure.

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Dog penis

Os penis


Blood sinuses

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Pig penis

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Seminiferous tubules form the mass of the testes and are the sites of


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Head of


Tail of


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The spermatogonia are the germ cells of the testis. Unlike

mamallian oogonia, they continue to divide throught life.

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Primary spermatocytes

The spermatogenic cells--spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes,

secondary spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa--represent

different cell stages in spermatogenesis.

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Secondary spermatocytes

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Sustenticular cells

The outlines of sustentacular cells are not distinct. Maturing

spermatozoa are found embedded, head first, in the sustentacular

cells, which provide mechanical support, protection and possibly

nutrition for the developing spermatozoa.

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Basal lamina

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Factors affecting sperm production

  • Sexual maturity

  • Heredity

  • Underfeeding

  • Nutrients like Vitamin A, E, protein

  • Temperature

  • Testis size

  • Abnormalities

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Male Review

  • Spermatogenesis occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testes.

    • Sustentacular and interstitial cells aid the development of spermatogonia into spermatozoa with a nuclear head, mitochondria filled midpiece and a microtubule tail.

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  • Sperm are stored and mature as they move through the head, body and tail of the epididymis and into the ductus deferens.

  • Seminal fluid is formed by the addition of nutrients, buffers and lubricants from the accessory sex glands

    • (e.g. vesicular, bulbourethral, prostate and ampulla.

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  • There is variation among species as to which glands are present.

  • The penis may contain an os penis in addition to vascular sinuses, (corpus spongiosum and cavernosum) to produce erection.

  • The urethra is also shared by the urinary tract.

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