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Pharmacology. Drugs used to treat: Asthma Rhinitis & Cough. Bronchodilators Methylxanthines Anticholinergics Anti-inflammatory Agents Leukotriene Antagonists Mast cell stabilizers. Decongestants Antihistamines Antitussives Expectorants & mucolytics. Topics. Asthma.

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Pharmacology l.jpg

Pharmacology

Drugs used to treat:

Asthma

Rhinitis & Cough


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Bronchodilators

Methylxanthines

Anticholinergics

Anti-inflammatory Agents

Leukotriene Antagonists

Mast cell stabilizers

Decongestants

Antihistamines

Antitussives

Expectorants & mucolytics

Topics


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Asthma

  • Inflammatory response to allergen

  • Antibody binds with & ruptures mast cells

    • Releases histamine, prostaglandins, leukotrienes

  • Two primary issues

    • Bronchoconstriction

    • Inflammation (mucous production)


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Approaches to Treatment

  • Relax bronchial smooth muscle

    • ß2 agonists

    • methylxanthines

    • anticholinergics

  • Inhibit release of mediators

    • Glucocorticoids

    • Mast cell stabilizers

  • Block affects of mediators

    • Leukotriene antagonists




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Colds and Allergies

  • Nasal Inflammation

    • Vasodilation & engorgement

  • Itching, redness, rhinorrhea

    • Mast/basophil degranulation


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 congestion via vasodilation

Alpha1 stimulation

Topical administration

phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine®)

pseudoephedrine (Sudafed®, Actifed®)

A moment of silence for:

phenylpropanolamine (AlkaSeltzer Cold®, Contact®, Allerest®)

Nasal Decongestants


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H1 receptors

Vasodilation

Increased capillary permeability

Bronchoconstriction

H2 receptors

Increase gastric acid secretion (Zantac®), etc)

Other histamine receptors

Sedation

Antihistamines


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First generation

Sedation

chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton®)

diphenhydramine (Benadry®)

clemastine (Tavist®)

promethazine (Phergan®)

Second generation

No sedation

blood-brain barrier

Sniff, sniff:

terfenadine (Seldane®)

fexofenadine (Allegra®)

cetirizine (Zyrtec®)

loratadine (Claritin®)

Antihistamine Agents


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Antitussives

Decrease cough reflex

Opioids

codeine & hydrocodone

Non-opioids

dextromethorphan

benzonatate (Tessalon®)

Expectorants

guaifenesin may work

others are doubtful

Mucolytics

Decreases viscocity

acetlycysteine (Mucomyst®)

hypertonic saline

Cough Suppressants


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