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Pharmacology. Drugs used to treat: Asthma Rhinitis & Cough. Bronchodilators Methylxanthines Anticholinergics Anti-inflammatory Agents Leukotriene Antagonists Mast cell stabilizers. Decongestants Antihistamines Antitussives Expectorants & mucolytics. Topics. Asthma.

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Presentation Transcript
pharmacology

Pharmacology

Drugs used to treat:

Asthma

Rhinitis & Cough

topics
Bronchodilators

Methylxanthines

Anticholinergics

Anti-inflammatory Agents

Leukotriene Antagonists

Mast cell stabilizers

Decongestants

Antihistamines

Antitussives

Expectorants & mucolytics

Topics
asthma
Asthma
  • Inflammatory response to allergen
  • Antibody binds with & ruptures mast cells
    • Releases histamine, prostaglandins, leukotrienes
  • Two primary issues
    • Bronchoconstriction
    • Inflammation (mucous production)
approaches to treatment
Approaches to Treatment
  • Relax bronchial smooth muscle
    • ß2 agonists
    • methylxanthines
    • anticholinergics
  • Inhibit release of mediators
    • Glucocorticoids
    • Mast cell stabilizers
  • Block affects of mediators
    • Leukotriene antagonists
colds and allergies
Colds and Allergies
  • Nasal Inflammation
    • Vasodilation & engorgement
  • Itching, redness, rhinorrhea
    • Mast/basophil degranulation
nasal decongestants
 congestion via vasodilation

Alpha1 stimulation

Topical administration

phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine®)

pseudoephedrine (Sudafed®, Actifed®)

A moment of silence for:

phenylpropanolamine (AlkaSeltzer Cold®, Contact®, Allerest®)

Nasal Decongestants
antihistamines
H1 receptors

Vasodilation

Increased capillary permeability

Bronchoconstriction

H2 receptors

Increase gastric acid secretion (Zantac®), etc)

Other histamine receptors

Sedation

Antihistamines
antihistamine agents
First generation

Sedation

chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton®)

diphenhydramine (Benadry®)

clemastine (Tavist®)

promethazine (Phergan®)

Second generation

No sedation

blood-brain barrier

Sniff, sniff:

terfenadine (Seldane®)

fexofenadine (Allegra®)

cetirizine (Zyrtec®)

loratadine (Claritin®)

Antihistamine Agents
cough suppressants
Antitussives

Decrease cough reflex

Opioids

codeine & hydrocodone

Non-opioids

dextromethorphan

benzonatate (Tessalon®)

Expectorants

guaifenesin may work

others are doubtful

Mucolytics

Decreases viscocity

acetlycysteine (Mucomyst®)

hypertonic saline

Cough Suppressants
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