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Participation and Attitudes About Hunting Public Opinion Surveys (Duda, 2001). Sally Williams Consumer Research Planner Marketing Services Branch December 2002. Research Sources General Population Survey Telephone survey of Texas residents age 18 and above: 2,002 respondents

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Participation and attitudes about hunting public opinion surveys duda 2001 l.jpg

Participation and Attitudes About HuntingPublic Opinion Surveys (Duda, 2001)

Sally Williams

Consumer Research Planner

Marketing Services Branch

December 2002


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  • Research Sources

  • General Population Survey

  • Telephone survey of Texas residents age 18 and above:

    • 2,002 respondents

  • Data were weighted by the seven travel and tourism regions to represent the relative populations of these regions.

  • Outdoor Recreation Participation Survey

  • Telephone survey of Texas residents age 18 and above:

    • 801 respondents

      • 113 outdoor recreationists who hunt

  • Survey targeted general population of those who participated in outdoor recreation as well as those who did not participate, but expressed an interest in participating in outdoor recreation activities.


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  • Research Sources

  • Hunter Survey

  • Telephone survey of licensed resident hunters who had purchased a hunting license for the 1999/2000 hunting season:

    • 809 respondents

  • Super Combo, Combo, Resident Hunting, and Special Resident Hunting license holders were interviewed.

  • Data were weighted by type of hunting license to represent the relative populations of these license types.


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  • Research Sources

  • Landowner Survey

  • Telephone survey of Texas landowners who owned 640 or more acres:

    • 563 respondents

  • Landowners were identified using county property tax records.

  • Surveys were conducted in all seven travel regions in the counties that agreed to participate in supplying sample.


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  • Overview

  • Demographics of Hunters

  • Participation in Hunting

  • Satisfaction with Hunting

  • Knowledge and Satisfaction with TPWD

  • TPWD Regulations

  • TPWD Game Wardens

  • Interest in Information

  • TPWD Funding

  • Landowners and Hunting

  • Attitudes and Interest in Hunting Among Non-Hunters

  • General Population’s Attitudes Toward Hunting

  • Conclusions and Implications



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Median Number of Years *

* The median is the midpoint of the distribution. Half the number are below the median; half are above it.

Source: Duda, 2001


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Location of residence

Comparable US Census data not available for Texas for this question.

Source: Duda, 2001


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Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) areas.

% of Hunters

% of Texas population

Houston

16%

20%

Dallas

12%

17%

Fort Worth-Arlington

6%

8%

San Antonio

7%

8%

Austin-San Marcos

6%

6%

Other MSA’s

23%

26%

Urban areas within MSA’s

70%

85%

Rural areas outside MSA’s

30%

15%

  • Location of Residence of 2001 Hunting License Holders

  • About 70% of hunters live in Metropolitan Statistical Areas, whereas 85% of the general population of Texas lives in these urban areas.

Sources: TPWD License Point of Sale data, 2001 License Year for license types: Super Combo, Combination Hunting/Fishing, and Resident Hunting licenses; 2000 US Census Count, TAMU, State Data Center.


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Source: Duda, 2001, and US Census, 2000.


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Source: Duda, 2001, and US Census, 2000.


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License Type population.

Median age *

Combo

42

Super Combo

41

Resident Hunting

37

Total Adult Resident Hunting Licenses (age 17 and above) **

41

Texas Population, US Census (adults)

40

Resident Hunting License holders are younger than Combo and Super Combo holders.

* The median is the midpoint of the distribution. Half the ages are below the median; half are above it.

** Includes adult-only hunting license types: Combo, Super Combo, Resident Hunting, Senior Combo, and Senior Super Combo.

Source: TPWD License Point of Sale data, 2001, and US Census, 2000.


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Hunters population.

Texas Population, US Census

White/Non-Hispanic

85%

53%

Hispanic

7%

32%

African-American

1%

11%

Other

7%

3%

The majority of hunters are non-Hispanic and white.

Source: Duda, Hunter Survey, 2001, and US Census, 2000.


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Hunters population.

Texas Population, US Census

Male

93%

49%

Female

7%

51%

Hunters are overwhelmingly male.

Source: Duda, Hunter Survey, 2001, and US Census, 2000.



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Hunting is one of the least participated in outdoor recreation activities among the general population of Texas.

Participated at least once in the last 12 months

Sources: Duda, Outdoor Recreation Participation Survey, 2001


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Participated at least once during the year

Sources: USFWS, National Survey on Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation, 1991, 1996, 2001 (hunters age 16 and above) and US Census, 1990 and 2000.


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Source: Duda, Outdoor Recreation Participation Survey, 2001


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White-tailed deer and dove are the most popular species with Texas hunters.

Top 2 species hunted in the last 2 years

Source: Duda, Hunter Survey, 2001


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  • Hunters are some of the most avid Texas hunters.participants.

  • Hunters participate with similar frequency to anglers, less often than boaters, and more often than state park visitors.

Median Number of Days Participated in Last 12 Months

Details in Appendix.

Source: Duda, 2001


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Rio Grande turkey and squirrel hunters participated the most frequently.

Median Number of Days Participated in Last 12 Months

Species in the top two species hunted in the last 2 years.

Note: Some species not reported due to small sample sizes.

Source: Duda, 2001


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Participated every year in last five years

Details in Appendix.

Source: Duda, 2001


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Mule deer and Rio Grande turkey hunters are the most consistent hunters.

Participated every year in last five years

Species in the top two species hunted in the last 2 years.

Note: Some species not reported due to small sample sizes.

Source: Duda, 2001


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Most hunters take consistent hunters. both day and overnight hunting trips.

Source: Duda, Hunter Survey, 2001


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  • Overnight Trips: consistent hunters.

  • Hunters travel farther for overnight trips.

  • Over 60% of hunters traveled more than 2 hours one-way for their overnight trips.

  • Freshwater anglers were more likely to stay close to home, with almost half traveling less than two hours.

Distance traveled one-way for overnight trips

Details in Appendix.

Source: Duda, 2001


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Mule deer and quail hunters travel the farthest distance for their overnight hunting trips.

Distance traveled one-way for overnight trips

Species in the top two species hunted in the last 2 years.

Note: Some species not reported due to small sample sizes.

Source: Duda, 2001


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  • Day trips: their overnight hunting trips.

  • Over three-quarters of hunters travel less than 2 hours one-way for day trips.

  • This is similar to saltwater and freshwater anglers.

Distance traveled one-way for day trips

Details in Appendix.

Source: Duda, 2001


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Mule deer hunters travel the farthest for their day trips. their overnight hunting trips.

Distance traveled one-way for day trips

Species in the top two species hunted in the last 2 years.

Note: Some species not reported due to small sample sizes.

Source: Duda, 2001


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“For the sport of it” and “to be with friends and family” are the primary reasons for hunting.

Primary Reasons For Hunting

Source: Duda, Hunter Survey, 2001


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Participated in activity in the past 2 years

Source: Duda, Hunter Survey, 2001


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Hunting primarily takes place on private land. Texas.

Question text: When hunting in Texas during the past 2 years, would you say you mostly hunted on public land, private land, or both about the same?

Location of hunting in last 2 years

Source: Duda, Hunter Survey, 2001


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Location of hunting in last 2 years

Species in the top two species hunted in the last 2 years.

Note: Some species not reported due to small sample sizes.

Source: Duda, Hunter Survey, 2001


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  • Modern weapons are most popular among hunters. hunted primarily on private land.

  • A third of hunters hunted with dogs during the last 2 years.

  • Bow and arrow, muzzleloader, and black powder firearm were used by a minority of hunters.

Participated in activity in the past 2 years

Source: Duda, Hunter Survey, 2001


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Satisfaction With Hunting hunted primarily on private land.


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Satisfaction with outdoor recreation experiences

Source: Duda, 2001


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Duck and quail hunters are less satisfied with their hunting than other hunters.

Very satisfied with hunting for the species

Note: Some species not reported due to small sample sizes.

Source: Duda, Hunter Survey, 2001


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Quality of hunting in the last 5 years

Source: Duda, 2001


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Percent reporting user conflicts

Source: Duda, 2001


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Hunters who hunt primarily on private land report less user conflict than those who hunt on public land.

Percent reporting user conflicts

Source: Duda, 2001


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Limits to Participation

Percentages based on hunters who experienced limitations.

* Note: percentages do not add to 100% due to multiple responses per respondent

Source: Duda, Hunter Survey, 2001


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Of hunters who are limited by time, almost all cite work as the specific reason.

Time limitations

Percentages based on hunters who specified time limitations to participation.

* Note: percentages do not add to 100% due to multiple responses per respondent

Source: Duda, Hunter Survey, 2001


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Of those who are limited by cost, lease cost is the most commonly cited reason.

Cost limitations

Percentages based hunters who specified cost limitations to participation.

* Note: percentages do not add to 100% due to multiple responses per respondent

Source: Duda, Hunter Survey, 2001


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Knowledge & Satisfaction commonly cited reason.

with TPWD


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Knowledge about TPWD’s activities

This question asked for respondents’ perception of their knowledge. It did not ask for specific information to test their knowledge.

Source: Duda, 2001


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Satisfaction with TPWD

Source: Duda, 2001


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Rating of TPWD’s efforts to provide recreation opportunities

Source: Duda, 2001


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Rating of efforts to incorporate recreationists’ wants and needs into management of outdoor activities

Source: Duda, 2001


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Hunting-related activities TPWD should provide much more effort to do

Source: Duda, Hunter Survey, 2001


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Few hunters felt that activities focused on specific species or weapons required more effort from TPWD.

Hunting-related activities TPWD should provide much more effort to do

Source: Duda, Hunter Survey, 2001


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Activities TPWD should provide much more effort to do

Source: Duda, 2001


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TPWD Regulations encouraging landowners to open access for recreation than anglers do.


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Satisfaction with hunting/fishing/boating regulations

Source: Duda, 2001


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Agreement that regulations are clear and easy to understand

Source: Duda, 2001


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TPWD Game Wardens easy to understand.


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Contact with a Game Warden in last 5 years

Source: Duda, 2001


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  • Over a third of hunters have not contact with Game Wardens.seen a Game Warden patrolling and providing services.

  • Boaters saw the most Game Wardens during the last 12 months.

Source: Duda, 2001


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Rating of Game Warden effectiveness at controlling illegal activity

Source: Duda, 2001


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Rating of Game Wardens as being professional and courteous

Source: Duda, 2001



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Interest in receiving information about outdoor recreation

Source: Duda, 2001


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* Note: Percentages do not add to 100% due to multiple responses per respondent.

Question was open-ended.

Source: Duda, 2001


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Information about where to hunt and hunting access are of most interest to hunters.

Types of information desired by hunters

Note: Respondents supplied their own answers

Source: Duda, Hunter Survey, 2001


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Performed activity in the last 2 years

Source: Duda, Hunter Survey, 2001


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TPWD Funding and TV shows in the last 2 years.


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Hunters are divided in their support for an increase in license fees to increase funding for TPWD.

  • Almost one-third of all anglers and hunters strongly oppose an increase in activity fees.

Support for increasing license fees

Source: Duda, 2001


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Combo license holders are license fees to increase funding for TPWD.more likely to strongly oppose license fee increases.

Percentage strongly opposing fee increases

Source: Duda, 2001


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Hunters living in rural areas and large cities are license fees to increase funding for TPWD.more likely to strongly oppose license fee increases.

Percentage strongly opposing fee increases

Source: Duda, 2001


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Hunters with incomes under $100,000 are license fees to increase funding for TPWD.more likely to strongly oppose license fee increases.

Percentage strongly opposing fee increases

Source: Duda, 2001


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Hunters age 55 and above are license fees to increase funding for TPWD.more likely to strongly oppose license fee increases.

  • For the 65 and older group, this seems to be driven by their lower income compared to other hunters. Over half make less than $40,000 per year. Only 8% make $100,000 or more per year.

  • For the 55-64 year group, some of their opposition is driven by the relatively high percentage (40%) who are Combo license holders.

Percentage strongly opposing fee increases

Source: Duda, 2001


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Hunters who did not attend college are license fees to increase funding for TPWD.more likely to strongly oppose license fee increases.

  • This finding is driven by the relatively low income of those who did not attend college. Only 7% of them have incomes of $100,000 or more compared to 24% of those who attended college.

Percentage strongly opposing fee increases

Source: Duda, 2001


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Hunters who live in the Piney Woods are license fees to increase funding for TPWD.more likely to strongly oppose license fee increases.

  • This is driven in part by the lower income of the Piney Woods hunters compared to hunters in other parts of Texas. Piney Woods hunters are also more likely to be Combo license holders.

Percentage strongly opposing fee increases

Source: Duda, 2001


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Large Landowners and Hunting license fees to increase funding for TPWD.


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Source: Duda, Landowner Survey, 2001


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78% of large landowners currently allow hunting on their lands by lease or family and friends.

Landowners allowing hunting on their land

Source: Duda, Landowner Survey, 2001


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Landowners in the Hill Country are the most likely to allow hunting on their property by permission or lease.

Source: Duda, 2001


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Poor behavior of hunters and concern for wildlife and livestock are top reasons landowners ceased allowing hunting on their lands.

Question was open-ended.

Source: Duda, Landowner Survey, 2001


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The majority of landowners expressed major concern about allowing hunting on their land due to legal concerns.

Expressed legal concerns about hunting on their land

Source: Duda, Landowner Survey, 2001


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Over three-quarters of landowners are allowing hunting on their land due to legal concerns.not aware that Texas provides liability protection to landowners for allowing outdoor recreation use on their property.

Aware or unaware of liability protection

Source: Duda, Landowner Survey, 2001


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Attitudes and Interest in Hunting Among Non-Hunters allowing hunting on their land due to legal concerns.


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“Non-hunters” are respondents to the Outdoor Recreation Participation Survey who did not hunt during the last 12 months.

The Outdoor Recreation Participation Survey allows for an analysis of non-hunters’ interest in hunting and reasons for not participating.

Source: Duda, Outdoor Recreation Participation Survey, 2001


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Interest in hunting among non-hunters

Source: Duda, Outdoor Recreation Participation Survey, 2001


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Over 1 million adult Texans who do not hunt are very interested in participating in hunting.

Source: Duda, Outdoor Recreation Participation Survey, 2001; US Census 2000

Total Texas adult population: 14,965,061

For example: 9% of those who do not hunt are very interesting in doing so. Since 84% of Texans do not hunt, this constitutes a substantial number of interested non-hunters available to convert to hunting.


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Source: Duda, Outdoor Recreation Participation Survey, 2001

Question was open-ended.


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  • Among non-hunters, target shooters and anglers were non-hunters did not go hunting.more likely to be very interested in hunting than those who did not shoot or fish.

  • Participants in other recreation activities were no more likely to be very interested in hunting

Percent very interested in hunting

For example, of those who participate in target shooting, 34% are very interested in hunting. By contrast, only 7% of those who do not target shoot are interested in hunting.

Bold numbers indicate a statistically significant difference.

Source: Duda, Outdoor Recreation Participation Survey, 2001


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Percent very interested in hunting

Source: Duda, Outdoor Recreation Participation Survey, 2001


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Percent very interested in hunting

Source: Duda, Outdoor Recreation Participation Survey, 2001


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Source: Duda, Outdoor Recreation Participation Survey, 2001; US Census 2000.


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Source: Duda, Outdoor Recreation Participation Survey, 2001


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General Population’s Attitudes Toward Hunting an excellent or good job at providing hunting opportunities.


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Outdoor recreation issues of concern to Texans

Question was open-ended.

Source: Duda, General Population Survey, 2001


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The opportunity to hunt was viewed by the general population as the least important of 12 outdoor recreation and natural resource values.

Rated Very Important

Source: Duda, General Population Survey, 2001


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Texans in the general population view some hunting-related activities as top priorities for TPWD.

When rating the importance of 22 TPWD activities, they put two hunting-related activities in the top 3 list.

Source: Duda, General Population Survey, 2001


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Texans view the enforcement of fishing, hunting, and boating laws and hunter safety education as top priorities for TPWD.

Top TPWD Activities Texans Rated as Very Important

Source: Duda, General Population Survey, 2001


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Outdoor Recreation Opportunity Activities Texans Rated as Very Important

Source: Duda, General Population Survey, 2001


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Opposition to Hunting unimportant activity for TPWD.


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Over 20% of Texans disapprove of legal hunting. unimportant activity for TPWD.

Source: Duda, Outdoor Recreation Participation Survey, 2001


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Source: Duda, Outdoor Recreation Participation Survey, 2001


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Place of residence by Texans’ opposition or approval to legal hunting

For example, 13% of those who approve of legal hunting life in a rural area. However, only 7% of those who oppose legal hunting do.

Source: Duda, Outdoor Recreation Participation Survey, 2001


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Ethnicity, gender, and average age by Texans’ opposition or approval to legal hunting

For example, 71% of those who oppose legal hunting are female. However, only 53% of those who approve of legal hunting are.

Source: Duda, Outdoor Recreation Participation Survey, 2001


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Participation in outdoor recreation by Texans’ opposition or approval to legal hunting

For example, 43% of those who approve of legal hunting fish. However, only 26% of those who oppose legal hunting fish.

Source: Duda, Outdoor Recreation Participation Survey, 2001


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Conclusions and Implications approve of it by:


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  • Generating general support for hunting among the Texas population is an important challenge.

  • Hunting is among the least common outdoor recreation activities.

  • The number of hunters in Texas is growing again but is not keeping pace with population growth.

  • 9% of non-hunters are very interested in hunting. This projects to over a million very interested potential hunters that TPWD has the opportunity to reach.

  • 22% of the general population disapproves of legal hunting.

  • Educating non-hunters about hunting is hunters’ #1 priority for TPWD with over half believing TPWD should provide much more effort toward this activity.


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  • Message to increase Texans’ support for hunting: population is an important challenge.

  • Connect hunting to the management and conservation of natural resources – water, wildlife, and habitat

    • 93% of Texans believe it is very important that water resources are safe and well protected

    • 74% of Texans believe it is very important that fish and wildlife are properly managed and conserved.

    • 69% of Texans believe it is very important that important habitats and lands are protected and preserved.

    • Conservation of natural resources has broad support from Texans across ethnic, gender, and urban/rural lines.

    • Texans need to understand the critical role that hunting plays in conserving these animals and lands.


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  • Conditions necessary for Texans’ acceptance of hunting: population is an important challenge.

  • TPWD should continue to diligently pursue law enforcement and hunter safety education activities to ensure responsible hunting.

    • These hunting-related activities are in the top 3 overall important activities to the general population.

    • Texans are concerned with minimizing the risks from hunting: that hunters not break laws that protect wildlife and not endanger the lives of themselves or others while hunting.


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  • TPWD needs to reach out to recruit those who do not match the typical hunter profile.

  • Current typical hunter

    • White male, mid-40’s, higher than average income, living in a small town or large city

  • Non-hunters more likely to be very interested in hunting

    • Target shooters and anglers

    • Men

    • Hispanics and African-Americans

    • Young people, especially below the age of 34


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  • Emphasize motivating factors for hunters: the typical hunter profile.

  • The sport of hunting and being with friends and family.

  • Make hunting a family activity

    • Time constraints commonly limit hunters’ participation in their activity.

    • Time constraints, including work and family responsibilities, are also common reasons that very interested non-hunters did not go hunting.

    • Women are consistently less interested in hunting than men, but could be attracted to an outdoor family experience in which hunting plays a role.


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  • Increasing TPWD revenue by increasing hunting license fees is likely to meet with substantial opposition.

  • Half of hunters moderately or strongly oppose license fee increases.

  • Costs, and the related issue of access, are limiting factors for many hunters. Lease costs are particularly a problem for some hunters.

  • Converting the 23% of hunters who do not hunt every year into regular license purchasers could increase TPWD revenue.


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  • Increasing access to private lands is important to the future of hunting.

  • The vast majority of hunters hunt primarily on private lands.

  • Encouraging private landowners to open land for hunting is the #4 TPWD priority for hunters.

  • About half of landowners are interested in generating money or tax breaks by allowing hunting on their lands.

  • Landowners are very concerned about the legal consequences of allowing hunting on their land, but for the most part are unaware of the liability protection offered by the state.

  • Educating landowners about landowner liability facts is key to opening up these currently unused lands for hunting.


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  • Hunters give TPWD and Game Wardens high ratings. future of hunting.

  • Most hunters are satisfied with their hunting experiences, though duck and quail hunters are less satisfied.

  • Most hunters are satisfied with TPWD as a government agency.

  • Hunters and landowners agree that Game Wardens are effective in controlling illegal activity.


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  • Top activities hunters say TPWD should spend much more effort on:

  • Educating non-hunters about hunting

  • Improving habitats on public land

  • Acquiring more state-owned land

  • Encouraging private landowners to open land for hunting

  • Providing information on hunting opportunities

  • Promoting hunter ethics and responsibility

  • Improving and increasing access to public hunting areas


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Appendix effort on:


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Number of Days Participating in Outdoor Recreation Activities – TPWD Customers

Source: Duda, 2001


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Distance Traveled One-Way to Participate in Activities – TPWD Customers

Outdoor Recreation – Day Trips

Source: Duda, 2001


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Distance Traveled One-Way to Participate in Activities – TPWD Customers

Outdoor Recreation – Overnight Trips

Source: Duda, 2001


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Outdoor Recreation Participation in the Last 5 Years Activities – TPWD Customers

Source: Duda, 2001


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How many years have you lived in Texas? Activities – TPWD Customers

Source: Duda, 2001


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  • Age of TPWD Customers Activities – TPWD Customers

  • The 25-34 age group is under-represented among hunters.

  • The 45-54 and 55-64 age groups are over-represented.

Source: Duda, 2001, and US Census, 2000.


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The importance of conserving fish and wildlife and preserving habitats

Source: Duda, General Population Survey, 2001.


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