MOST IMPROVED - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Slide1 l.jpg
Download
1 / 60

  • 435 Views
  • Updated On :
  • Presentation posted in: Sports / Games

MOST IMPROVED. Practical Grade increased > 10%. Danielle Montgomery Jerrilyn Moore Tuan Nguyen Ashley Pisano Lindsey Plaia Emily Richard Alexander Wheatley. Elise Atkinson Calie Budo Shanon Campbell Corinne Carr Lauren Damico Cheryl Ellsworth Sophia Estopinal Sara Lacey.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.

Download Presentation

MOST IMPROVED

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Slide1 l.jpg

MOST IMPROVED

Practical Grade increased > 10%

Danielle Montgomery

Jerrilyn Moore

Tuan Nguyen

Ashley Pisano

Lindsey Plaia

Emily Richard

Alexander Wheatley

Elise Atkinson

Calie Budo

Shanon Campbell

Corinne Carr

Lauren Damico

Cheryl Ellsworth

Sophia Estopinal

Sara Lacey


Slide2 l.jpg

Practical Exam 2

Anatomy all-stars

Katasha August

Jared Bain

Katelyn Beattie

Jocelyn Braselman Jones

Mary Cusimano

Andria Dennis

Ashley Gilchrist

Jennifer Gravolet

Nathan Green

Shayana Hogan

Kellen McConnell

Ashley Pisano

Mark Ranatza

Sarah Raymond

Emily Schott

Jo Sciple

Jamie Stock

Alexandra Waters

Jessica Windham


Slide3 l.jpg

Vertebral Column

and

Back


Slide4 l.jpg

VERTEBRAL COLUMN

7 CERVICAL

VERTEBRAE

  • Protection of spinal cord and spinal nerves

  • Rigid but flexible body axis

  • Pivot for head

12 THORACIC

VERTEBRAE

5 LUMBAR

VERTEBRAE

33 FETAL UNITS

26 ADULT UNITS

1 SACRUM

[ 5 FUSED]

1 COCCYX

[4 FUSED]


Slide5 l.jpg

NORMAL CURVES OF THE VERTEBRAL

COLUMN

ADULT CURVES

Cervical Curve

Secondary

Lordotic

Thoracic Curve

Primary

Kyphotic

Lumbar Curve

Secondary

Lordotic

FETAL CURVES

All Kyphotic

Sacrococcygeal Curve

Primary

Kyphotic


Slide6 l.jpg

TODDLER

FETUS

INFANT

  • FETUS: PRIMARY CURVATURE (KYPHOSIS)

  • INFANT: SECONDARY CERVICAL LORDOSIS

  • TODDLER: SECONDARY LUMBAR LORDOSIS


Slide7 l.jpg

EXAGGERATED

LUMBAR CURVE

“SWAYBACK”

EXAGGERATED

THORACIC CURVE

“HUNCHBACK”

LATERAL

CURVATURE

CLINICAL CORRELATION


Slide8 l.jpg

SEVERE SCOLIOSIS – WILL REQUIRE TREATMENT

CLINICAL CORRELATION


Slide9 l.jpg

TYPICAL VERTEBRA

SUPERIOR

ARTICULAR

PROCESS

SPINOUS

PROCESS

TRANSVERSE

PROCESS

Lamina

Pedicle

VERTEBRAL

ARCH

VERTEBRAL

FORAMEN

BODY (CENTRUM)

SPINAL

CORD


Slide10 l.jpg

TYPICAL VERTEBRA

SUPERIOR NOTCH

S.A.P.

PEDICLE

BODY

INTERVERTEBRAL

FORAMEN

BODY

TRANSVERSE

PROCESS

SPINE

INTERVERTEBRAL

DISC

INFERIOR

NOTCH

I.A.P.

LEFT LATERAL VIEW


Slide11 l.jpg

SPINAL NERVES

SPINAL NERVES EMERGE FROM

INTERVERTEBRAL FORAMINA

MRI scan


Slide12 l.jpg

CERVICAL VERTEBRAE

POSTERIOR VIEW


Slide13 l.jpg

TYPICAL CERVICAL VERTEBRA

LAMINA

BIFID SPINE

TRIANGULAR

VERTEBRAL

FORAMEN

SUPERIOR

ARTICULAR

PROCESS

TRANSVERSE

FORAMEN

PEDICLE

TRANSVERSE

PROCESS

BODY

SUPERIOR VIEW


Slide14 l.jpg

THE ATLAS (C1)

POSTERIOR

ARCH

LATERAL MASS

DENS

FACET

ANTERIOR

ARCH

SUPERIOR VIEW

HAS NO SPINE AND NO BODY


Slide15 l.jpg

THE AXIS (C2)

DENS

SUPERIOR VIEW

HAS A DENS OR ODONTOID PROCESS


Slide16 l.jpg

VERTEBRA PROMINENS (C7)

NONBIFID SPINE

SUPERIOR VIEW


Slide17 l.jpg

THORACIC VERTEBRAE

PEDICLE

TRANSVERSE PROCESS

SAP

FACET FOR RIB TUBERCLE

IAP

SPINE

INTERVERTEBRAL

FORAMEN

RIGHT LATERAL VIEW


Slide18 l.jpg

TYPICAL THORACIC VERTEBRA

TRANSVERSE

COSTAL

FACET

SUPERIOR

ARTICULAR

PROCESS

TRANSVERSE

PROCESS

SUPERIOR

DEMIFACET

SUPERIOR VIEW


Slide19 l.jpg

TYPICAL THORACIC VERTEBRA

SUPERIOR

ARTICULAR

PROCESS

SUPERIOR

DEMIFACET

TRANSVERSE

PROCESS

BODY

COSTAL

FACET

[T1-T10]

PART OF

LAMINA

INFERIOR

DEMIFACET

SPINE

LATERAL VIEW


Slide20 l.jpg

LUMBAR VERTEBRAE

LATERAL VIEW


Slide21 l.jpg

TYPICAL LUMBAR VERTEBRA

SUPERIOR

VERTEBRAL

NOTCH

SUPERIOR

ARTICULAR

PROCESS

FACES MEDIALLY

LARGE BODY

TRANSVERSE

PROCESS

INFERIOR

VERTEBRAL

NOTCH

SHORT RECTANGULAR

SPINOUS PROCESS

INFERIOR ARTICULAR

FACET FACES LATERALLY

LATERAL VIEW


Slide22 l.jpg

SACRUM AND COCCYX

SUPERIOR

ARTICULAR

PROCESS

ALA

SACRAL

PROMONTORY

BODY

S1

ANTERIOR

SACRAL

FORAMEN

S2

TRANSVERSE LINE

S3

S4

BASE

S5

TRANSVERSE

PROCESS

CO1

CO2

COCCYX

CO3

CO4

ANTERIOR VIEW


Slide23 l.jpg

SACRUM AND COCCYX

SACRAL CANAL

SUPERIOR

ARTICULAR

FACET

POSTERIOR

SACRAL

FORAMEN

CO1

COCCYX

CO2

CO3

CO4

POSTERIOR VIEW


Slide24 l.jpg

VERTEBRAL LIGAMENTS

1. ANTERIOR LONGITUDINAL

LIGAMENT

5. SUPRA-

SPINOUS

LIG.

2. POSTERIOR

LONGITUDINAL

LIGAMENT

DISC

3. LIG.

FLAVA

4. INTER-

SPINOUS

LIG.

BODY

1. ANTERIOR LONGITUDINAL

LIGAMENT

LATERAL AND ANTERIOR VIEWS


Slide25 l.jpg

LIGAMENTS OF THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN

1. ANTERIOR LONGITUDINAL LIGAMENT:

Anterior to the vertebral bodies

Is found from C2 to the Sacrum

2. POSTERIOR LONGITUDINAL LIGAMENT:

Posterior to the vertebral bodies and anterior to the spinal cord

Is found from C2 to the Sacrum

3. LIGAMENTUM FLAVUM:

Elastic fibers make it yellow in appearance

Runs from the laminae of adjacent vertebrae from C2 to the Sacrum

Forms the posterior wall of the vertebral foramen along with the vertebral arches

4. INTERSPINOUS LIGAMENT:

Runs from spine to spine from C2 to the Sacrum

5. SUPRASPINOUS LIGAMENT:

Runs from the tip of one spinous process to the next

Called the nuchal ligament in the cervical region


Slide26 l.jpg

INTERVERTEBRAL

JOINTS

AO JOINT

AA JOINT

INTERVERTEBRAL DISCS

FACET JOINTS

OSSIFIED JOINTS


Slide27 l.jpg

ATLANTO-OCCIPITAL JOINT

OCCIPITAL

BONE

AO JOINT

C1

Functional Class: Diarthrosis (freely movable)

Structural Class: Synovial (synovial cavity)

Subtype: Condyloid

Movements: Flexion and Extension


Slide28 l.jpg

ATLANTO-OCCIPITAL JOINT

MOVEMENTS AT THE ATLANTO-OCCIPITAL JOINT


Slide29 l.jpg

ATLANTO-AXIAL (AA) JOINT


Slide30 l.jpg

ATLANTO-AXIAL (AA) JOINT

ANTERIOR

ANTERIOR

ARCH OF

ATLAS

CHECK

LIGAMENT

POSTERIOR

DENS OF AXIS

Functional Class: Diarthrosis

Structural Class: Synovial

Subtype: Pivot

Movements: Rotation


Slide31 l.jpg

ATLANTO-AXIAL (AA) JOINT

MOVEMENTS AT THE ATLANTO-AXIAL JOINT


Slide32 l.jpg

DUE TO A FALL OR AN AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENT

COULD BE FATAL IF DENS PRESSES ON SPINAL CORD

CLINICAL CORRELATION


Slide33 l.jpg

DUE TO HYPEREXTENSION OF THE NECK

HANGMAN’S FRACTURE

CLINICAL CORRELATION


Slide34 l.jpg

INTERVERTEBRAL DISC

Functional Class: Amphiarthrosis [slight movement]

Structural Class: Cartilaginous

Subtype: Symphysis

Movements: Flexion and Extension


Slide35 l.jpg

INTERVERTEBRAL DISC


Slide36 l.jpg

INTERVERTEBRAL DISC

MOVEMENTS AT THE INTERVERTEBRAL DISCS


Slide37 l.jpg

PROTRUDING [HERNIATED] DISC

PRESSING ON A SPINAL NERVE

ANNULUS

FIBROSIS

NUCLEUS

PULPOSIS

CLINICAL CORRELATION


Slide38 l.jpg

PROTRUDING [HERNIATED] DISC

PRESSING ON A SPINAL NERVE

MRI of lumbar region

CLINICAL CORRELATION


Slide39 l.jpg

FACET JOINTS

[BETWEEN SAPS AND IAPS]

Functional Class: Diarthrosis

Structural Class: Synovial

Subtype: Gliding

Movements: Flexion, Lateral

Flexion, Extension


Slide40 l.jpg

FACET JOINTS

MOVEMENTS AT FACET JOINTS

[ ROTATION NOT SHOWN]


Slide41 l.jpg

OSSIFIED JOINTS

Functional Type:

Synarthrosis [immovable]

Structural Type: Synostosis

[converted to bone]

Movement: None


Slide42 l.jpg

DUE TO AN AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENT

HYPEREXTENSION

INJURY

(WHIPLASH)

CLINICAL CORRELATION


Slide43 l.jpg

SPORTS RELATED

HYPEREXTENSION INJURY

CLINICAL CORRELATION


Slide44 l.jpg

BACK AND NECK MUSCLES

EXTRINSIC BACK MUSCLES

Superficial 1ST Layer

Two large flat triangular muscles

TRAPEZIUS

LATISSIMUS DORSI


Slide45 l.jpg

EXTRINSIC BACK MUSCLES – Superficial 2nd Layer

LEVATOR

SCAPULAE

RHOMBOID

MINOR

Three muscles that attach the scapula to the Vertebral column

RHOMBOID

MAJOR


Slide46 l.jpg

INTERMEDIATE EXTRINSIC BACK MUSCLES

SERRATUS POSTERIOR

SUPERIOR M.

SERRATUS POSTERIOR

INFERIOR M.

THESE ARE ACCESSORY MUSCLES OF RESPIRATION


Slide47 l.jpg

DEEP [INTRINSIC] BACK MUSCLES

SUPERFICIAL DEEP – THE SPLENIUS MM.

INTERMEDIATE DEEP – THE LONGITUDINAL MM.

DEEP DEEP – THE TRANSVERSOSPINAL MM.


Slide48 l.jpg

SPLENIUS MUSCLES

FIBERS RUN OBLIQUELY IN UPPER THORACIC AND CERVICAL REGIONS

SPLENIUS

CAPITIS M.

SPLENIUS

CERVICIS M.

SPLENIUS CAPITIS M.

From upper thoracic region

to the skull

SPLENIUS CERVICIS M.

From upper thoracic region

to upper cervical region

We usually group these two muscles into a single

“SPLENIUS MUSCLE”


Slide49 l.jpg

LONGITUDINAL MM. - ERECTOR SPINAE COMPLEX

FIBERS RUN LONGITUDINALLY AND LATERALLY

ERECTOR

SPINAE

COMPLEX

3 COLUMNS FROM MEDIAL

TO LATERAL:

SPINALIS MM.

From upper lumbar region to

cervical region

LONGISSIMUS MM.

From lumbar region to skull

ILIOCOSTALIS MM.

From sacrum and iliac crest

to cervical region

ILIOCOSTALIS

LONGISSIMUS

SPINALIS

S.L.IC.


Slide50 l.jpg

TRANSVERSOSPINAL MM.

FIBERS RUN OBLIQUELY FROM TRANSVERSE PROCESSES TO SPINOUS PROCESSES

SEMISPINALES

3 GROUPS

SEMISPINALIS MM.

Span 4-5 vertebrae

MULTIFIDUS MM.

Span 2-4 vertebrae

ROTATORES MM.

Span 1-2 vertebrae

(see next diagram)

MULTIFIDI


Slide51 l.jpg

SMALLEST AND DEEPEST BACK MUSCLES

INTERTRANSVERSARIUS

ROTATORES

INTERSPINALES MM.

Between adjacent spinous

processes

INTERTRANSVERSARII MM.

Between adjacent transverse

processes

INTERSPINALES


Slide52 l.jpg

EXTENSION

HYPEREXTENSION

FLEXION

LATERAL

FLEXION

ACTIONS OF THE DEEP BACK MUSCLES


Slide53 l.jpg

ACTIONS OF THE DEEP BACK MUSCLES

ROTATORES ROTATE THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN


Slide54 l.jpg

STRAINS AND SPRAINS

STRAIN: occurs when the muscle tendon unit is

stretched or torn

SPRAIN: occurs when a ligament is stretched or

torn

CLINICAL CORRELATION


Slide55 l.jpg

LUMBAR STRAINS AND SPRAINS:

CAUSES OF STRAINS AND SPRAINS OF THE

LOWER BACK

EXCESSIVE PHYSICAL DEMANDS

ON THE BACK

LIFTING SOMETHING TOO HEAVY

A SUDDEN FALL

A CAR CRASH

A SPORTS INJURY

LUMBAR SPRAIN

CLINICAL CORRELATION


Slide56 l.jpg

CERVICAL STRAINS AND SPRAINS:

CAUSES OF STRAINS AND SPRAINS OF THE

NECK AND UPPER BACK

WHIPLASH INJURY DUE TO AUTO ACCIDENTS, FALLS, OR

SPORTS-RELATED ACCIDENTS

PROLONGED UNUSUAL POSTURE

CHRONIC REPETITIVE MOVEMENTS

CLINICAL CORRELATION


Slide57 l.jpg

SUBOCCIPITAL REGION

EXTERNAL

OCCIPITAL

PROTUBERENCE

SEMISPINALIS CAPITIS (CUT)

OBLIQUUS

SUPERIOR

RECTUS CAPITIS

MINOR

SPLENIUS

CAPITIS (CUT)

RECTUS CAPITUS

MAJOR

VERTEBRAL

ARTERY

OBLIQUUS

INFERIOR

C2

C1


Slide58 l.jpg

OBLIQUUS CAPITIS INFERIOR ROTATES THE ATLAS ON THE AXIS


Slide59 l.jpg

THE OTHER SUBOCCIPITAL MUSCLES EXTEND THE HEAD


Slide60 l.jpg

SURFACE ANATOMY OF THE BACK


  • Login