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How Computers Work PowerPoint PPT Presentation


How Computers Work. Unit 1, Module 3: PC Hardware Components - Part 2. Temporary (primary storage, or memory) Temporarily holds data and instructions while processing them Faster to access than permanent storage Permanent (secondary storage). Storage Devices. Primary Storage Devices.

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How Computers Work

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How computers work l.jpg

How Computers Work

Unit 1, Module 3:

PC Hardware Components - Part 2


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Temporary (primary storage, or memory)

Temporarily holds data and instructions while processing them

Faster to access than permanent storage

Permanent (secondary storage)

Storage Devices


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Primary Storage Devices

  • Memory, or RAM, located on the motherboard and on other circuit boards

    • Volatile

      • Temp. memory

    • Nonvolatile (or ROM) memory

      • Memory that holds data permanently even when the power is turned off


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Primary Storage Devices

  • Common types of boards that hold memory chips

    • SIMMs (single inline memory modules)

    • DIMMs (dual inline memory modules)

    • RIMMs (memory modules manufactured by Rambus, Inc.)

    • Which one is the most common type of memory used today?


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RAM Chips


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Types of RAM ModulesPin Sizes


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Primary Storage Cache Memory

  • Cache speeds up memory access, or holding area for data or instructions that are accessed frequently

  • On newer CPU’s, cache is stored inside the CPU housing on a memory chip that sits very close to the CPU microchip

  • Older CPU’s use COAST(cache on a stick) which is memory module on the motherboard or it is stored on individual chip


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Secondary Storage Devices

  • Permanently hold data, even when PC is turned off

    • Hard disks

    • Floppy disks

    • Zip drives

    • CD-ROMs


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Hard Drive

  • Contains a platter that rotates at high speed.

  • An arm with sensitive read/write head reaches across the platters which enables writing new data and reading exiting data from the HD.


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Hard Drive

  • Uses IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) technology; can accommodate up to four EIDE devices on one system

  • IDE provides two connectors on a motherboard for two data cables

  • Motherboard can accommodate up to 4 IDE devices on one system…HD, Zip Drive, CD-ROM and tape Drives


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Motherboard with Two IDE Connectors


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A Typical System


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Floppy Drive

  • Sizes 3.5 and the older 5.25 floppy drives

  • Requires a controller

  • Floppy drive cable allows attach two drives…Drive A at the end of the cable and Drive B in the middle of the cable

  • Electricity to a floppy drive is provided by a the power cord from the power supply


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Floppy Drive


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CD-ROM

  • Compact Disc Read Only Memory

  • Needs a power cord and IDE data cable


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Motherboard Components Used for Communication Among Devices

  • Traces

    • Are circuits, or paths, that enable data, instructions, and power to move from component to component on the board

    • Represented by fine lines on both the top and the bottom of board’s surface

    • Traces are also referred as a Bus Lines


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Bus Lines


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Motherboard Components Used for Communication Among Devices

  • The bus

    • The ability of the CPU to communicate with the rest of the system

    • System of pathways used for communication to travel between devices.

    • The motherboard has more than one bus.


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Motherboard Components Used for Communication Among Devices

  • The System Bus

    • Know as the (external bus), (expansion bus), (front side bus) or (memory bus)

    • The main bus on the motherboard that communicates with the CPU, Memory, and the Chip Set, and Expansion Slots

    • It is know as the external bus because it is outside the processor


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Motherboard Components Used for Communication Among Devices

  • The system is bus is a expansion bus because it is a bus system that allows the processor to talk to another device which are connected to expansion slots.

  • Types of expansion slots

    • PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect)

      • For high-speed input/output devices)

    • AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port)

      • For a video card

    • ISA (Industry Standard Architecture)

      • Used by older and/or slower devices)


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System Clock

  • Found on a bus to Synchronizes activity on the motherboard

  • Sends continuous pulses carried on bus over the motherboard to chips, expansion slots to ensure that all activities are performed in a synchronized fashion

  • The clock single or pulses are generated by a quartz crystal located on motherboard

  • Frequency of activity is measured in Megahertz (MHz), or 1 million cycles per second


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System Clock

  • CPU operates from 166 MHz to two GHz, or two thousand MHz (2 billion cycles per second.)

  • This means rate of speed that the processor executes commands is measured by the clock speed


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Expansion Cards

  • Enable the CPU to connect to an external device or to a network are mounted in expansion slots on the motherboard

  • Cards can provide ports as well

  • Expansion cards include: sound, video, network, modem

  • Determine the the function of the card by looking at the port

  • Example: Video Card has 15 pins, 3 rows of pins


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The Electrical System

  • Power supply

    • Converts AC power from the wall outlet into DC power that can be used by the computer.

    • Newer power supplies provide 3.3, 5 and 12 volts of DC.

    • Runs a fan directly from electrical output voltage to cool inside of computer case


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Instructions and Data Stored on the Motherboard

  • ROM (read-only memory) chips store very basic instructions and data that are stored on motherboard

  • ROM chip has software instructions permanently etched into the chip is called Firmware

  • This type of memory is nonvolatile


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Instructions and Data Stored on the Motherboard

  • BIOS (basic input/output system)chips

    • ROM Chips hold programs or software the tell CPU how to perform many input/output tasks.

    • Examples:

      • ROM BIOS chip on the motherboard contain programming to start up the PC and to perform other task such as interacting with Floppy Disk Drive


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Instructions and Data Stored on the Motherboard

  • As new hardware components or BIOS features become available the ROM chips need to be upgraded or within the past needed to be replaced

  • Today…Flash ROM chips allows for ROM chips to be reprogrammed or changed without replacing the chips


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Instructions and Data Stored on the Motherboard

  • CMOS chip

    • Also called CMOS RAM

    • CMOS contains data about the system configuration, current time and date

      • When computer turns on, it looks for the CMOS chip to find what hardware it should expect to find.


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Instructions and Data Stored on the Motherboard

  • CMOS chip…continued

    • Powered by a battery on motherboard when power is off

      • CMOS chip is RAM but the chip retains its data

      • If battery dies setup info. is all lost

      • Access to a computer can be controlled by power-on password in CMOS by accessing the setup screen

        • Some computers provide a jumper near CMOS chip that when set to “On” causes the computer to forget any changes that have been made to default settings in CMOS or disable the password


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SetupInstallation Information

  • Jumpers: two wires that stick up side by side on the system board that are used to hold configuration information.

  • The two pins and the connection together server as electrical connection on the motherboard

  • If the pins are not connected with a cover, the setting is considered “OFF”

  • If the cover is present, the setting is “ON”.


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Jumpers


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Dip Switches

  • Dual Inline Package Switch (DIP)

    • Like on a light switch that has on and off settings

    • Not found on new systems


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Review

  • Storage within in a computer consists of primary and secondary storage.

  • Two types of memory exist within a computer: Volatile and nonvolatile.

  • BIOS provides instructions for your computer in order for it to boot.

  • Configurations settings are set by using jumpers and dip switches.


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