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Figure 20-1 Page 433. Atmospheric pressure (millibars). Figure 20-2 Page 434. Temperature. Pressure. Mesopause. Stratopause. Tropopause. 0. 200. 400. 600. 800. 1,000. 120. 75. 110. 65. Thermosphere. 100. 90. 55. 80. Heating via ozone. Mesosphere. 45. 70. Altitude (miles).

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Figure 20 1 page 433 l.jpg
Figure 20-1Page 433


Figure 20 2 page 434 l.jpg

Atmospheric pressure (millibars)

Figure 20-2Page 434

Temperature

Pressure

Mesopause

Stratopause

Tropopause

0

200

400

600

800

1,000

120

75

110

65

Thermosphere

100

90

55

80

Heating via ozone

Mesosphere

45

70

Altitude (miles)

60

Altitude (kilometers)

35

50

Stratosphere

40

25

30

15

Ozone “layer”

20

Heating from the earth

Troposphere

10

5

Pressure = 1,000

millibars at

ground level

0

–80

–40

0

40

80

120

(Sea

Level)

Temperature (˚C)


Figure 20 3 page 435 l.jpg
Figure 20-3Page 435

Photochemical ozone

40

25

35

20

Stratosphere

30

25

Stratospheric ozone

15

Altitude (kilometers)

Altitude (miles)

20

10

15

10

5

Troposphere

5

0

0

0

5

10

15

20

Ozone concentration (ppm)


Slide4 l.jpg

Table 20-1 Major Classes of Air Pollutants

Class

Carbon oxides

Sulfur oxides

Nitrogen oxides

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

Suspended particulate matter (SPM)

Photochemical oxidants

Radioactive substances

Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), which cause health effects such as cancer, birth defects, and nervous system problems

Examples

Carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2)

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur trioxide (SO3)

Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) (NO and NO2 often are lumped together and labeled NOx)

Methane (CH4), propane (C3H8), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

Solid particles (dust, soot, asbestos, lead, nitrate, and sulfate salts), liquid droplets (sulfuric acid, PCBs, dioxins, and pesticides)

Ozone (O3), peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs), hydrogen peroxide

(H2O2), aldehydes

Radon-222, iodine-131, strontium-90, plutonium-239 (Table 3-1, p. 49)

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), methyl chloride (CH3Cl), chloroform (CHCl3), benzene (C6H6), ethylene dibromide (C2H2Br2), formaldehyde (CH2O2)

Table 20-1Page 436


Figure 20 4 page 436 l.jpg
Figure 20-4Page 436

2

SO4

NO3

Primary Pollutants

CO

CO2

Secondary Pollutants

SO2

NO

NO2

SO3

Most hydrocarbons

HNO3

H2SO4

Most suspended

particles

H2O2

O3

PANs

Most

and

salts

Sources

Natural

Stationary

Mobile


Table 20 2 page 438 l.jpg
Table 20-2Page 438

Table 20-2 Major Outdoor Air Pollutants

CARBON MONOXIDE (CO)

Description: Colorless, odorless gas that is poisonous to air-breathing animals; forms during the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels (2 C + O2 2 CO).

Major human sources: Cigarette smoking (p. 409), incomplete

burning of fossil fuels. About 77% (95% in cities)comes from motor vehicle exhaust.

Health effects: Reacts with hemoglobin in red blood cells and reduces the ability of blood to bring oxygen to body cells and tissues. This impairs perception and thinking; slows reflexes; causes headaches, drowsiness, dizziness, and nausea; can trigger heart attacks and angina; damages the development of fetuses and young children; and aggravates chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and anemia. At high levels it causes collapse, coma, irreversible brain cell damage, and death.


Table 20 2 page 4387 l.jpg
Table 20-2Page 438

Table 20-2 Major Outdoor Air Pollutants

NITROGEN DIOXIDE (NO2)

Description: Reddish-brown irritating gas that gives photochemical smog its brownish color; in the atmosphere can be converted to nitric acid (HNO3), a major component of acid deposition.

Major human sources: Fossil fuel burning in motor vehicles (49%) and power and industrial plants (49%).

Health effects: Lung irritation and damage; aggravates asthma and chronic bronchitis; increases susceptibility to respiratory infections such as the

flu and common colds (especially in young children and older adults).

Environmental effects: Reduces visibility; acid deposition of HNO3 can damage trees, soils, and aquatic life in lakes.

Property damage: HNO3 can corrode metals and eat away stone on buildings, statues, and monuments; NO2 can damage fabrics.


Table 20 2 page 4388 l.jpg
Table 20-2Page 438

Table 20-2 Major Outdoor Air Pollutants

SULFUR DIOXIDE (SO2)

Description: Colorless, irritating; forms mostly from the combustion of sulfur containing fossil fuels such as coal and oil (S + O2 SO2); in the atmosphere

can be converted to sulfuric acid (H2SO4), a major component of acid deposition.

Major human sources: Coal burning in power plants (88%) and industrial processes

(10%).

Health effects: Breathing problems for healthy people; restriction of airways in people with asthma; chronic exposure can cause a permanent condition similar to bronchitis. According to the WHO, at least 625 million people are exposed to unsafe levels of sulfur dioxide from fossil fuel burning.

Environmental effects: Reduces visibility; acid deposition of H2SO4 can damage trees, soils, and aquatic life in lakes.

Property damage: SO2 and H2SO4 can corrode metals and eat away stone on buildings, statues, and monuments; SO2 can damage paint, paper, and leather.


Table 20 2 page 4389 l.jpg
Table 20-2Page 438

Table 20-2 Major Outdoor Air Pollutants

SUSPENDED PARTICULATE MATTER (SPM)

Description: Variety of particles and droplets (aerosols) small and light enough to remain suspended in atmosphere for short periods (large particles) to long periods

(small particles; Figure 20-6, p. 441); cause smoke, dust, and haze.

Major human sources: Burning coal in power and industrial plants (40%), burning diesel and other fuels in vehicles (17%), agriculture (plowing, burning off fields), unpaved roads, construction.

Health effects: Nose and throat irritation, lung damage, and bronchitis; aggravates bronchitis and asthma; shortens life; toxic particulates (such as lead, cadmium, PCBs, and dioxins) can cause mutations, reproductive problems, cancer.

Environmental effects: Reduces visibility; acid deposition of H2SO4 droplets can

damage trees, soils, and aquatic life in lakes.

Property damage: Corrodes metal; soils and discolors buildings, clothes, fabrics, and paints.


Table 20 2 page 43810 l.jpg
Table 20-2Page 438

Table 20-2 Major Outdoor Air Pollutants

OZONE (O3)

Description: Highly reactive, irritating gas with an unpleasant odor that forms in the troposphere as a major component of photochemical smog (Figures 20-3 and 20-5).

Major human sources: Chemical reaction with volatile organic compounds (VOCs, emitted mostly by cars and industries) and nitrogen oxides to form photochemical smog (Figure 20-5).

Health effects: Breathing problems; coughing; eye, nose, and throat irritation; aggravates chronic diseases such as asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, and heart disease; reduces resistance to colds and pneumonia; may speed up lung tissue aging.

Environmental effects: Ozone can damage plants and trees; smog can reduce visibility.

Property damage: Damages rubber, fabrics, and paints.


Table 20 2 page 43811 l.jpg
Table 20-2Page 438

Table 20-2 Major Outdoor Air Pollutants

LEAD

Description: Solid toxic metal and its compounds, emitted into the atmosphere as particulate matter.

Major human sources: Paint old houses), smelters (metal refineries), lead manufacture, storage batteries, leaded gasoline (being phased out in developed countries).

Health effects: Accumulates in the body; brain and other nervous system damage and mental retardation (especially in children); digestive and other health problems; some lead-containing chemicals cause cancer in test animals.

Environmental effects: Can harm wildlife.


Figure 20 5 page 440 l.jpg
Figure 20-5Page 440

Solar

radiation

Ultraviolet radiation

NO

Nitric oxide

O2

Molecular

oxygen

NO2

Nitrogen

dioxide

H2O

Water

O

Atomic

oxygen

Hydrocarbons

PANs

Peroxyacyl

nitrates

O3

Ozone

Aldehydes

(e.g., formaldehyde)

HNO3

Nitric acid

Photochemical smog


Figure 20 6 page 441 l.jpg

Ultrafine

Particles

Fine

Particles

Large

Particles

Figure 20-6Page 441

Sea salt nuclei

Fly ash

Carbon black

Pollens

Paint pigments

Tobacco smoke

Cement dust

Milled flour

Combustion nuclei

Coal dust

Oil smoke

Metallurgical dust and fumes

Photochemical smog

Insecticide dusts

0.001

0.01

2.5

10.0

100.0

Average particle diameter (micrometers or microns)


Figure 20 7a page 443 l.jpg
Figure 20-7aPage 443

Increasing altitude

Decreasing temperature

Warmer air

Inversion layer

Cool layer

Mountain

Mountain

Valley


Figure 20 7b page 443 l.jpg
Figure 20-7bPage 443

Descending warm air mass

Sea breeze

Increasing altitude

Decreasing temperature

Inversion layer

Mountain

range


Figure 20 8 page 444 l.jpg
Figure 20-8Page 444

Wind

Transformation to

sulfuric acid (H2SO4)

and nitric acid (HNO3)

Windborne ammonia gas

and particles of cultivated soil

partially neutralize acids and

form dry sulfate and nitrate salts

Wet acid deposition

(droplets of H2SO4 and

HNO3 dissolved in rain

and snow)

Nitric oxide (NO)

Dry acid

deposition

(sulfur dioxide

gas and particles

of sulfate and

nitrate salts)

Sulfur dioxide (SO2)

and NO

Acid fog

Farm

Lakes in shallow

soil low in

limestone

become

acidic

Ocean

Lakes in

deep soil

high in limestone

are buffered


Animation l.jpg
Animation

Acid deposition animation.

Click to view animation.


Figure 20 9 page 445 l.jpg
Figure 20-9Page 445


Figure 20 10 page 446 l.jpg
Figure 20-10Page 446

Potential problem areas

because of sensitive soils

Potential problem areas because

of air pollution: emissions leading

to acid deposition

Current problem areas

(including lakes and rivers)


Figure 20 11 page 447 l.jpg
Figure 20-11Page 447

Emission

Acid

deposition

SO2

H2O2

PANs

NOX

O3

Others

Increased

Susceptibility

to drought,

extreme cold,

insects, mosses,

and disease

organisms

Reduced

photosynthesis

and growth

Direct damage

to leaves and bark

Soil acidification

Tree death

Reduced nutrient

and water uptake

Leaching of

Soil nutrients

Root

damage

Release of

toxic

metal icons

Acid

Groundwater


Figure 20 12 page 448 l.jpg

Solutions

Figure 20-12Page 448

Acid Deposition

Prevention

Cleanup

Reduce air pollution by improving energy efficiency

Add lime to neutralize

acidified lakes

Reduce coal use

Add phosphate

fertilizer to neutralize

acidified lakes

Increase natural gas use

Increase use of

renewable resources

Burn low-sulfur coal

Remove SO2 particulates, and Nox from smokestack gases

Remove Nox from motor vehicular exhaust

Tax emissions of SO2


Figure 20 13 page 450 l.jpg
Figure 20-13Page 450

Para-dichlorobenzene

Tetrachloroethylene

Chloroform

1, 1, 1-

Trichloroethane

Formaldehyde

Benzo-a-pyrene

Nitrogen Oxides

Styrene

Tobacco Smoke

Asbestos

Radon-222

Methylene Chloride

Carbon Monoxide


Figure 20 14 page 451 l.jpg
Figure 20-14Page 451

Outlet vents for furnaces and dryers

Open window

Open window

Openings

around

pipes

Openings

around

pipes

Cracks in wall

Cracks in wall

Slab joints

Wood stove

Cracks in floor

Sump

pump

Clothes

dryer

Furnace

Slab

Radon-222 gas

Uranium-238

Soil


Figure 20 15a page 452 l.jpg
Figure 20-15aPage 452

Nasal cavity

Oral cavity

Pharynx (throat)

(see figure 20.15b)

Trachea (windpipe)

Bronchus

Right lung

Bronchioles

(see figure 20.15c)


Figure 20 15b page 452 l.jpg
Figure 20-15bPage 452

Epithelial cell

Cilia

Mucus


Figure 2 15c page 452 l.jpg
Figure 2-15cPage 452

Bronchiole

Alveolar sac

(sectioned)

Alveolar duct

Alveoli


Figure 20 17 page 456 l.jpg
Figure 20-17Page 456

Solutions

Stationery Source Air Pollution

Dispersion or Cleanup

Prevention

Burn low-sulfur

coal

Disperse

emissions above

thermal inversion

layer with tall

smokestacks

Remove sulfur

from coal

Convert coal

to a liquid or

gaseous fuel

Remove

pollutants after

combustion

Shift to less

polluting fuels

Tax each unit

of pollution

produced


Figure 20 18a page 457 l.jpg
Figure 20-18aPage 457

Cleaned gas

Electrodes

Dust discharge

Dirty gas

Electrostatic Precipitator


Figure 20 18b page 457 l.jpg
Figure 20-18bPage 457

Bags

Cleaned gas

Dirty gas

Baghouse Filter

Dust discharge


Figure 20 18c page 457 l.jpg
Figure 20-18cPage 457

Cleaned gas

Dirty gas

Cyclone Separator

Dust discharge


Figure 20 18d page 457 l.jpg
Figure 20-18dPage 457

Cleaned gas

Dirty gas

Wet

gas

Clean

water

Dirty water

Wet Scrubber


Figure 20 19 page 458 l.jpg
Figure 20-19Page 458

Solutions

Motor Vehicle Pollutions

Prevention

Cleanup

Mass transit

Emission control

devices

Bicycles and walking

Less polluting engines

Less polluting fuels

Car exhaust

Inspections

twice a year

Improve fuel efficiency

Get older, polluting

cars off the road

Give buyers tax write-

offs for buying low-

polluting, energy-

efficient vehicles

Restrict driving in

polluted areas

Stricter emission

standards


Figure 20 20 page 459 l.jpg
Figure 20-20Page 459

Solutions

Indoor Air Pollution

Prevention

Cleanup

Cover ceiling tiles and lining of AC ducts to prevent release of mineral fibers

Use adjustable fresh air vents for work spaces

Increase intake of outside air

Ban smoking or limit it to well-ventilated areas

Change air more frequently

Set stricter formaldehyde emissions standards for carpet, furniture, and building materials

Circulate building’s air through rooftop greenhouses

Prevent radon infiltration

Use exhaust hoods for stoves and appliances burning natural gas

Use office machines in well-ventilated areas

Use less polluting substitutes for harmful cleaning agents, paints, and other products

Install efficient chimneys for wood-burning stoves


Figure 20 21 page 459 l.jpg
Figure 20-21Page 459

Solutions

Air Pollution

Prevention

Cleanup

Improve energy efficiency

to reduce fossil fuel use

Reduce poverty

Distribute cheap and efficient cookstoves to poor families in developing countries

Rely more on lower-polluting natural gas

Rely more on renewable energy (especially solar cells, wind, and solar-produced hydrogen)

Reduce or ban indoor smoking

Develop simple and cheap test for indoor pollutants such as particulates, radon, and formaldehyde

Transfer technologies for latest energy efficiency, renewable energy, and pollution prevention to developing countries.


Figure 20 21 page 45935 l.jpg
Figure 20-21Page 459

What Can You Do?

Indoor Air Pollution

  • Test for radon and formaldehyde inside your home and take corrective measures as needed.

  • Do not buy furniture and other products containing formaldehyde.

  • Remove your shoes before entering your house to reduce inputs of dust, lead, and pesticides.

  • Test your house or workplace for asbestos fiber levels and for any crumbling asbestos materials if it was built before 1980.

  • Don't live in a pre-1980 house without having its indoor air tested for asbestos and lead.

  • Do not store gasoline, solvents, or other volatile hazardous chemicals inside a home or attached garage.

  • If you smoke, do it outside or in a closed room vented to the outside.

  • Make sure that wood-burning stoves, fireplaces, and kerosene- and gas-burning heaters are properly installed, vented, and maintained.

  • Install carbon monoxide detectors in all sleeping areas.


Slide36 l.jpg

Present

range

Future

range

Overlap

Figure 12-12 Page 264


Animation37 l.jpg
Animation

Effect of air pollution in forests animation.

Click to view animation.


Animation38 l.jpg
Animation

Acid deposition animation.

Click to view animation.


Animation39 l.jpg
Animation

Thermal inversion animation.

Click to view animation.


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