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Educational Psychology. Define and contrast descriptive, correlational and experimental studies, giving examples of how each of these have been used in educational psychology. .

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Educational Psychology

Define and contrast descriptive, correlational and experimental studies, giving examples of how each of these have been used in educational psychology.

Define the four basic methods used to collect data in educational psychology (systematic observation, participant observation, paper/pencil, and clinical), giving an example of how each has been used in the study of important variables in educational psychology.


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Educational Psychology

In your discussion, define and differentiate the following terms: fact, concept, principle, hypothesis, theory, and law.

Developed by W. Huitt (1999)


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Research in Educational Psychology

There are a variety of ways of validating truth:

  • Personal experience

  • Intuition

  • Social and/or cultural consensus

  • Religious scripture and interpretation

  • Philosophy and logical reasoning

  • Science and the scientific method


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Research in Educational Psychology

In order for a process to be described as “scientific” it must meet three criteria:

  • knowledge must be grounded in experience

  • knowledge must be grounded in a paradigm or exemplar

  • any hypothesis must be potentially falsifiable


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Research in Educational Psychology

Some scientists argue that the only appropriate phenomena to study using the scientific method is behavior that is observable by others

However, other scientists believe that personal and interpersonal subjective experiences can also be studied using the scientific method


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Research in Educational Psychology

Educational psychology offers a fertile opportunity for scientists to demonstrate the validity of these opposing viewpoints

Sample topics that have been addressed include:

  • Cognitive development

  • Language development

  • Teaching methods for concept development


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Research in Educational Psychology

The scientific method can be used to engage in

  • Research

where the objective is to gain understanding of a particular phenomena

OR

  • Evaluation

where the objective is to make a judgement of worth or value


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Quantitative

Qualitative

Research in Educational Psychology

Assessment

Measurement

Research

Evaluation


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Research in Educational Psychology

There are three different types of studies used in scientific investigations

  • Descriptive study

Used when we have little knowledge of a phenomena and we want to describe it accurately and truthfully


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Research in Educational Psychology

There are three different types of studies used in scientific investigations

  • Correlational study

Used when we want to understand the relationships among variables and make predictions from present circumstances to future ones


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Research in Educational Psychology

There are three different types of studies used in scientific investigations

  • Correlational study

Correlation coefficient describes the strength of the relationship

Range is from -1 to +1




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Research in Educational Psychology

There are three different types of studies used in scientific investigations

  • Correlational study

Correlation coefficient describes the strength of the relationship

Range is from -1 to +1

Type of relationship is determined by sign




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Research in Educational Psychology

There are three different types of studies used in scientific investigations

  • Correlational study

Correlation coefficient describes the strength of the relationship

Range is from -1 to +1

Type of relationship is determined by sign

Strength of relationship is determined by absolute value


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Research in Educational Psychology

.60 > .40 (Regardless of sign)


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Research in Educational Psychology

There are three different types of studies used in scientific investigations

  • Experimental study

Used when we have a fairly good understanding of predictive relationships and we want to demonstrate cause/effect relationships


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Research in Educational Psychology

There are three different types of studies used in scientific investigations

  • Experimental study

Must have at least two groups

Subjects must be randomly assigned

One group must experience a treatment

The INDEPENDENT variable is manipulated

Change (if any) is observed in the DEPENDENT variable


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Research in Educational Psychology

There are three different types of studies used in scientific investigations

  • Experimental study

Only Results from Experimental Studies Can Demonstrate Cause and Effect Relationships


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Research in Educational Psychology

There are four levels of scientific investigation:

Action -- What is the relationship of A and B or what is the impact of A on B?

Example -- What are the best teaching methods that can be used to motivate students to learn?


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Research in Educational Psychology

There are four levels of scientific investigation:

Interaction -- What is the impact of A @ B1, A @ B2, etc.?

Example -- Does using cooperative learning in gender-mixed classrooms impact girls the same way it impacts boys?


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Research in Educational Psychology

There are four levels of scientific investigation:

Transaction -- What is the relationship between A and B over time?

Example -- If a teacher has successfully used a behavior modification technique, but has since stopped, what does the child do the next time the teacher uses that same technique?


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Research in Educational Psychology

There are four levels of scientific investigation:

Transaction -- What is the relationship between A and B over time?

Example -- What are the processes by which a mother’s educational level impacts the parent-child interaction and subsequent characteristics of the child when he or she enters a classroom at a later date?


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Research in Educational Psychology

There are four levels of scientific investigation:

Transformation -- How do qualitative changes in A impact qualitative changes in B; also B1 on A1, etc.

Example --How does parent involvement in a training program designed to impact a child’s classroom behavior impact the siblings of the child and the sibling’s subsequent interactions with the parent and future classroom behavior?


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Research in Educational Psychology

There are four basic methods used to gather data to be used in scientific studies. Each of the methods can be used in all three types of studies:

  • Paper/pencil -- any information gathered by asking the subject a question

  • Systematic observation -- trained recorder gathers data on prearranged variables


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Research in Educational Psychology

There are four basic methods used to gather data to be used in scientific studies. Each of the methods can be used in all three types of studies:

  • Participant observation -- the person collecting the data participates in the process being observed

  • Clinical -- specially-trained practitioners gather data as part of a diagnostic/prescriptive activity


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Research in Educational Psychology

Use of the scientific method results in an increasingly sophisticated knowledge base:

FACT

  • an idea or action that can be verified

  • names and dates of important activities; population of the United States in the latest census


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Research in Educational Psychology

Use of the scientific method results in an increasingly sophisticated knowledge base:

CONCEPT

  • rules that allow for categorization of events, places, people, ideas, etc.

  • a DESK is a piece of FURNITURE designed with a flat top for writing; a CHAIR is a piece of FURNITURE designed for sitting; a CHAIR with a flat surface attached to it that is designed for writing is also called a DESK


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Research in Educational Psychology

Use of the scientific method results in an increasingly sophisticated knowledge base:

PRINCIPLE

  • relationship(s) between/among facts and/or concepts

  • the number of children in the family is related to the average scores on nationally standardized achievement tests for those children


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Research in Educational Psychology

Use of the scientific method results in an increasingly sophisticated knowledge base:

HYPOTHESIS

  • educated guess about relationships (principles)

  • for lower-division, undergraduate students

  • study habits is a better predictor of success in a college course than is a measure of intelligence or reading comprehension


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Research in Educational Psychology

Use of the scientific method results in an increasingly sophisticated knowledge base:

THEORY

  • set of facts, concepts, and principles that allow description and EXPLANATION

  • Piaget's theory of cognitive development, Erikson's theory of socioemotional development, Skinner's theory of operant conditioning


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Research in Educational Psychology

Use of the scientific method results in an increasingly sophisticated knowledge base:

LAW

  • firmly established, thoroughly tested, principle or theory

  • a fixed interval schedule for delivering reinforcement produces a scalloping effect on behavior


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Research in Educational Psychology

Use of the scientific method does not necessarily invalidate information gathered through other means.

However, when data from science seem to contradict data from personal experience, intuition, social or cultural consensus, religious scripture and interpretation, or philosophy and rational thinking, an opportunity for learning has presented itself.


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Research in Educational Psychology

As stated previously, educational psychology is a SCIENTIFIC approach to the study of the teaching/learning process.

You will be expected to support your opinions developed through another source with data collected using the scientific method.


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Research in Educational Psychology

AN IMPORTANT CAVEAT

Only a small amount of the principles and theories developed in educational psychology have support from a body of research developed through the use of experimental studies.

Therefore, most of the concepts, principles, and theories discussed in this course must be considered as best-first-guess hypotheses.


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