Dictatorships. A Brief Look at Reign & Rule: Haiti Nicaragua Cuba. Haiti. Years of Oppression. 1492 Christopher Columbus discovered Haiti Spanish territory Early 1500's to late 1600's African slaves covered the island of Haiti First black republic in the world .
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A Brief Look at Reign & Rule:
Years of Oppression
1492 Christopher Columbus discovered Haiti
Early 1500's to late 1600's African slaves covered the island of Haiti
First black republic in the world
1697-1790 transformed to a French Colony
Mid-1700's nicknamed “Pearl the Caribbean”
1790-1803 Battle of Vertieres: anti-slavery movement
January 1804: Haiti becomes independent
1957- Francois 'Papa Doc' Duvalier elected President of Haiti
Papa Doc was Haiti's famous doctor before presidency
Began study of voodoo, Haiti's native religion, later plays significant role in political profit
Jean-Claude 'Baby Doc' Duvalier reveals his desire to return to “rebuild” Haiti in 2002
Believes that Aristide has vast majority against him and has no possibility to rule Haiti
Aristide is overthrown in 1991 & 1994
Exiled after rural uprising
U.S. removes support
Francois 'Papa Doc' Duvalier died 1971
Ruled Haiti for 14 years
Papa Doc passed his lifetime presidency down to his son
Jean-Claude 'Baby Doc' Duvalier, became youngest president, age 19
Jean-Claude 'Baby Doc' Duvalier exiled to France in 1856
Baby Doc ruled Haiti for 15 years
1990 Jean-Bertrand Aristide elected first Democratic President since 1804
Political parties were banned, curfews introduced, army sizes reduced, military academy closed
Manipulated elections extending his term and provided himself with life-long presidency so he couldn't be overthrown or elected out
Stole millions of dollars from US aid therefore US aid stopped all political relations
Baby Doc uninterested in government details left most all decisions to his mother Simone Ovid Duvalier
Tens of millions of dollars misappropriated by baby Doc
1983- Pope John Paul visits Haiti stating change is needed immediately
Papa Doc realized he needed allies after being isolated for so long
“You scratch my back, and I'll scratch yours”--a deal The Dominican Republic and Haiti made
Next, became allies with Cuba
Manipulated U.S. by saying Papa Doc would help US dispose of Castro
Nicaragua: Somoza Dynasty
The guards loyalty was assured by keeping it in the family.
The guard controlled gambling, prosecution, and smuggling.
Any citizen who wanted to have a business had to bribe or give kickbacks to guardsmen.
The Nicaraguan National Guard was compared to the Mafia at that time.
The National Guard controlled: national radio, telegraph, postal and immigration services, health services, internal revenue services and national railroads.
Somoza earned about 60 million US dollars during his reign.
He owned textile companies, sugar mills, rum distilleries, merchant marine lines, national Nicaraguan airlines and La Salud - the countries only milk pasteurizing plant.
After his father was assassinated, Luis took over.
His brother, Anastasio, took over the leadership of the National Guard.
A major political repression campaign followed the assassination.
In 1957, Luis Somoza Debayle was formally elected president.
Blatantly rigged an election in June 1967.
Encouraged corruption and protecting officers from prosecution for crimes committed against civilians.
Replaced skilled administrator with unqualified criminals and political allies.
He took money from a natural disaster relief fund and built the National Guard officers luxury homes.
A group of the Sandinista Liberation Front held a group of Managua’s elite partygoers hostage.
Demanded a large ransom, and to let 14 prisoners free and transport them to Cuba.
Once that happened, Anastasio ordered the National Guard to go into the countryside and take care of the “terrorist”
They tortured, raped and imprisoned innocent peasants.
The Roman Catholic Church got word and told the rest of the world.
The United States pressed Anastasio to stop the terrorism, he eventually did, as well as their freedom of press
1933: “Revolt of the Sergeants”
Helps to overthrow Machado
Begins military influence within the government
Batista’s first action in the politics of Cuba
Cuba’s president from 1940-44
Promoted social welfare, developed economy, and increased worker wages
1952: “Round 2”
Forced President Prio out of office, to gain control by force
Uses military connections to maintain order
Terrorized his people with police brutality, organized crime and cruelty
Profited off of sugar exports (millions)
Former Cuban sergeant
Joined in 1921
Backed by the Communist party & labor unions
Abandoned Cuban constitution
Became a well known friend of the U.S. mafia
Allied with the U.S. government
Became a lawyer from Havana University
Extremely passionate about social and political justice
Hate towards U.S.’s involvement in Cuban affairs
Multiple violent movements towards removing Batista
Created “The Revolution”
Jailed for 2 years
Years of Ruling Cuba:
False promises of democracy, freedom of press, and no more foreign dependency
50 years of ruling with fear and power, as supreme leader
Kidnapped numerous Americans in response to the U.S.’s involvement with Batista
Allied with the Soviet Union
Placed homosexuals in concentration camps in the 60’s for “re-education”
Announced major political policies without consultation of anyone
Brutal government social injustices
Closed independent newspapers
Religious institutions being harassed
Suspended habeas corpus
Free health care
Opened 10,000 new schools
Hopes to strengthen national identity
Cuba remains the most important aspect of his life