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CIAFS Indianapolis. Presentation: February 9, 2004. Outline. IDEM’s Top Compliance Issues P2 Technology: GM Bond P2 Technology: Advanced Oxidation. IDEM’s Top Compliance Issues. Waste determination Waste classification Reuse authorization Inadequate or inappropriate treatment

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CIAFS Indianapolis

Presentation: February 9, 2004


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Outline

  • IDEM’s Top Compliance Issues

  • P2 Technology: GM Bond

  • P2 Technology: Advanced Oxidation


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IDEM’s Top Compliance Issues

  • Waste determination

  • Waste classification

  • Reuse authorization

  • Inadequate or inappropriate treatment

  • Indefinite storage

  • Unpermitted disposal

  • Internal housekeeping

  • External housekeeping

  • Storm water releases


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IDEM’s Top Compliance Issues

1. Waste determination:

  • Answers the question: Is the material a solid waste, hazardous waste, or other regulated waste?

  • Made on individual waste streams at the point of generation

  • Generator knowledge is acceptable

  • Representative sampling and good lab data

  • Must keep good records to support decisions

  • Hazardous: Determine hazardous wastes and constituents

  • Solid: All wastes going into a municipal solid waste landfill

  • Definitions: IC 13-11-2-205, 40 CFR 261, 329 IAC 10-2-174


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IDEM’s Top Compliance Issues

1. Waste determination

Potential wastes from pattern making:

  • Scrap patterns (wood, plastic, metal, wax)

  • Adhesive wastes

  • Solvents from cleaning


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IDEM’s Top Compliance Issues

1. Waste determination

Potential wastes from mold & core preparation and pouring:

  • Green and core sands

  • Damaged cores

  • Emission dust

  • Wastewater (if mold is water-cured)

  • Spent plaster

  • Waxes

  • Plastics

  • Waste resins and binders


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IDEM’s Top Compliance Issues

1. Waste determination

Potential wastes from furnace charge prep & metal melting:

  • Slag

  • Baghouse dust

  • Wet scrubber sludge

  • Spent ladles

  • Spent refractory


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IDEM’s Top Compliance Issues

1. Waste determination

Potential wastes from shakeout, cooling and sand handling:

  • Used sand

  • Sand lumps

  • Baghouse or emission dust


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IDEM’s Top Compliance Issues

1. Waste determination

Potential wastes from quenching, finishing, cleaning, and coating:

  • Risers, runners, spurs (from gating)

  • Metal fins

  • Sand blasting sands

  • Steel shot blast

  • Solvents

  • Acids

  • Salt baths

  • Coatings

  • Quench bath or sludges

  • Cutting oils


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IDEM’s Top Compliance Issues

1. Waste determination

Potential miscellaneous wastes:

  • Light bulbs

  • Batteries

  • Used oil

  • Used shop rags


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IDEM’s Top Compliance Issues

2. Waste Classification:

  • For disposal of a waste into a restricted waste site other than Type 1

  • For beneficial reuse

  • Found in solid waste rule (329 IAC 10-9-4)

  • Requires detailed chemical, technical, process, and regulatory knowledge

  • Requires representative sampling, good lab data, and QA/QC


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IDEM’s Top Compliance Issues

2. Waste classification:

  • Issued by IDEM

  • No application form

  • No fee!

  • Make a list of wastes and disposition

  • Review hazwaste determination

  • Collect documentation

  • Prepare sampling and analysis plan and submit to IDEM (not required, but helpful)

  • Update every two years


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IDEM’s Top Compliance Issues

3. Reuse authorization:

  • Type 3 foundry sand may be reused without state authorization

  • Any reuse of foundry waste other than foundry sand or (foundry sand other than type 3) must be approved by IDEM


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IDEM’s Top Compliance Issues

4. Inadequate or inappropriate treatment:

  • Hazardous waste must be treated to a standard for the hazardous characteristic

  • Underlying hazardous constituents must be treated to the universal treatment standard

  • Must develop and follow a waste analysis plan

  • Prior to point of generation treatment must have a waste analysis plan and demonstrate adequate and effective daily treatment


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IDEM’s Top Compliance Issues

5. Indefinite storage:

  • Not allowed by IDEM

  • Storage must not exceed 6 months

  • Storage must not threaten human health and the environment

  • Storage over 6 months assumed to be disposal

  • Speculative accumulation not allowed

  • Need a known intended end use and user

  • Need known chemical/physical composition

  • Need known source of material, turnover ratio


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IDEM’s Top Compliance Issues

6. Unpermitted disposal:

  • Restricted Waste Sites (RWS) Type 1, 2, 3

  • All RWSs must be permitted before use

  • RWSs are designed according to the waste being disposed

  • Type 2 waste may be disposed in a Type 2 or 1 RWS (landfill)

  • Anything less may be allowed under 329 IAC 10-9-4(f) after demonstrating lower concentrations of waste chemicals in any leachate generated

  • Concerned over piles of sand, cores, refractory material, slag, trash, and baghouse dust on the ground; some seen in standing water


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IDEM’s Top Compliance Issues

7. & 8. Housekeeping, Internal and External:

  • Avoid unnecessary employee exposure

  • Avoid tracking wastes outside via equipment and staff

  • Prevent contamination to soil, surface water, groundwater and air

  • Report spills to IDEM: 888-233-7745

  • Containerize waste or place on impervious surface, protected from the environment


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IDEM’s Top Compliance Issues

9. Storm water releases:

  • Foundries may need a storm water permit

  • SIC codes

  • Storm water affected by industrial activity

  • Separate storm water sewer or point-source discharge to waters of the state

  • NOI, SWP3, Sampling, Inspections, Reporting

  • No-contact exclusion available


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Pollution Prevention Technologies

  • GM Bond

  • Advanced Oxidation


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Pollution Prevention Technologies

GM Bond:

  • Protein-based binder used for internal cores at aluminum, iron and steel foundries

  • Made from renewable, natural resources

  • Developed at General Motors R&D Center

  • Hormel Foods granted sole license to evaluate the product

  • CERP study: Reduced VOCs and HAPs by 90%

  • Currently working with GM Gray Iron Foundry in Saginaw, MI

  • No Indiana foundries using it at present


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Pollution Prevention Technologies

GM Bond:

  • Easier to rid the metal casting of its internal sand core, eliminating the need to heat or hammer parts

  • Reduced operating costs

  • Recyclable

  • Create stronger, more complex cores

  • Reduces pollution


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Pollution Prevention Technologies

GM Bond Contact:

  • Dave Parker, Hormel

  • Tel. 859-823-1586

  • [email protected]

  • www.gmbond.com


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Pollution Prevention Technologies

Advanced Oxidation:

  • Furness-Newburge, Inc.

  • Jim Furness

  • 859 873 0328

  • [email protected]


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What is Advanced Oxidation (AO) as used in the foundry industry ?

A “non-end of pipe” pollution prevention process that treats the city water used in a foundry’s sand molding operations.


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Advanced oxidants (and reductants) are created in sand system process water with the addition of small amounts of ozone, hydrogen peroxide, and in the presence of intense sonication .

The two main types are:

AO-Clean Water: sand system tap water treatment only

AO-Black Water: Wet collector and/or dry dust collector bentonite clay reactivation and return to the sand system via an AO treated blackwater slurry


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AO Clean Water System

The CLEAN WATER systems treat the city water used in a foundry’s greensand molding and sand cooling operations with advanced oxidants generated from the combination of ozone, hydrogen peroxide, and sonication.


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AO Blackwater System

The BLACKWATER systems apply additional acoustic techniques to advanced oxidation treatment concepts in order to recycle the coal and clay from a foundry’s dust collection systems to reduce solid waste disposal and to further reduce bond consumption.


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AO Core Room Odor Scrubber in operation at a California iron foundry. Integrates an advanced Sono-catalytic reactor, UV photo-catalysis and air phase wet oxidation with Clean Water AND Black Water AO systems.


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AO SystemMotivations for Installation

Reduce organic pollutant emissions

  • Reduce smoke and odor in foundries

  • Reduce neighborhood odor complaints and associated legal costs

  • Reduce benzene and VOC emissions to meet regulatory limits

  • Reduce solid wastes

    Improve sand system performance

  • Improve sand strengths  reduce mold cracking

  • Reduce bond consumption  save money

  • Improve the predictability of sand system properties


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Clean Water

Blackwater From wet scrubbers

Dust Recycle via

Blackwater

Emission

Reductions

10-30% Benzene

20-40% VOC

20-50% Benzene

30-75% VOC

50% Benzene

30-90% VOC

Sand System

Performance

15-35%

less clay

used

20-35%

Less clay

used

27%-48%

Less clay

used

Other Benefits

Reduced in-plant smoke and odor

Reduced stack odor

Reduced build-up of condensables in ductwork

AO system performance summary


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How does this compare to the published proposed new source MACT Standard of 20 ppmvVOCs for a sand system?AfterAOandoptimization:

  • A Wisconsin foundry has tested 1-18 ppmv on last certified stack test (EPA method 18 as propane) (Extremely heavy cored)

  • A Wisconsin foundry has tested 4-10 ppmv with heavy core load (WI Occupational Health Lab)

  • A Pennsylvania foundry has tested .8 to 3 ppmv after AAOP but before optimization is complete (EPA method 18 as hexane)

  • A heavily shell cored California foundry tested less than 6 ppmv.

  • A federally funded California research foundry has tested 14-16 ppmv via real-time FID (EPA method 25) of heavily cored engine block tests, lower on high surface area no-core. See graph provided.


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This turbocharger core package generated

many smoke and odor complaints.


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Turbocharger now produced

virtually smoke and odor free

after AO clay/coal recycle

and core room odor scrubbing


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