Animal reproduction and development
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Animal Reproduction and Development. Reproduction Song. Animals reproductive by asexual and sexual methods: Asexual is the production of offspring with genes all from one individual, without the fusion of gametes. Sexual involves formation of gametes and fertilization, genetic variation.

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Asexual Methods Include:

Budding in Hydra Starfish Regeneration

Gemmules in Sponges


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Parthenogenesis: an unfertilized egg develops

Honey bees: drones are males and are produced parthenogeneticly and female workers and queens form from fertilized eggs.

Queen Worker (female) Drone (male)


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Sexual Reproduction

Hermaphroditism: individual has both male and female reproductive systems

Earthworm


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Fertilization can occur externally or internally

Aquatic animals tend to be external

Terrestrial animals tend to be internal

Development can be external in the water, external on land, or internal.

Oviparous: lay eggs, Amniotic eggs are terrestrial eggs

Ovoviparous: live birth from eggs (some sharks and snakes)

Viviparous: live placental birth


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What are the adaptive values of each style off sexual animal reproduction?

Number of Eggs: ?

Parental Care: ?

Habitat: ?

Introduction to Reproduction System



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Reproductive System of the Human Male group

Male Reproductive System video

Male Reproductive System detailed video


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The male reproductive system produces sperm cells and provides a mechanism for delivering them to the female's body.

Identify the role of:

Testes

Epididymis

Vas deferens

Scrotum


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Outline the functions of the male reproductive organs provides a mechanism for delivering them to the female's body.

Vasectomy Surgery video


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Hormonal control of the Testes provides a mechanism for delivering them to the female's body.


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Development of Eggs and Sperm provides a mechanism for delivering them to the female's body.


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Spermatogenesis provides a mechanism for delivering them to the female's body.

Meiosis produces gametes in the seminiferous tubules.


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Close up look at seminiferous tubules video provides a mechanism for delivering them to the female's body.


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Seminiferous Tubules synthesize sperm Sperm cells provides a mechanism for delivering them to the female's body.

Sperm Structures


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Female Reproductive System provides a mechanism for delivering them to the female's body.


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Female Reproductive System provides a mechanism for delivering them to the female's body.

Female Reproductive System video


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Ovary Follicle provides a mechanism for delivering them to the female's body.


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Oogenesis provides a mechanism for delivering them to the female's body.

This is the state of the egg when fertilized


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Stages of Development in the Ovary provides a mechanism for delivering them to the female's body.

Ovarian Cycle video


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Identify the stages of the cycle provides a mechanism for delivering them to the female's body.

What happens in the ovary, uterus, and pituitary glands?

Uterine Cycle video

Menopause: cessation of cycle, ages 46-54, ovaries lose response to FSH & LH



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Cleavage occurs over several days following fertilization. The zygote divides as it travels through the oviduct. By the time the cilia of the oviduct deliver the embryo to the uterus, the embryo is a ball of cells called a blastocyst. The blastocyst implants in the endometrium.


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A blastocyst forms nearly a week after fertilization The zygote divides as it travels through the oviduct. By the time the cilia of the oviduct deliver the embryo to the uterus, the embryo is a ball of cells called a blastocyst. The blastocyst implants in the endometrium.

Four membranes protect and nourish the embryo, which consists of three tissue layers.


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Nutrients and waste products are exchanged between the fetus and the mother within the placenta. The umbilical vein (red) carries oxygen-rich blood and nutrients to the fetus. The umbilical arteries are blue, indicating that they carry oxygen-depleted blood and waste products away from the fetus.


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Placental circulation: materials are exchanged by diffusion, active transport, and selective absorption. Not by direct blood contact.

Structure and function of the placenta video


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Human fetal development: active transport, and selective absorption. Not by direct blood contact.

Amniotic Sac

5 weeks 14 weeks 20 weeks

Blood Incompatibility video


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Hormonal induction of labor active transport, and selective absorption. Not by direct blood contact.




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Name the phases and state of the organs. metabolism

Name the hormones:

Black:

Red:

Blue:

Green:


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Animal Development metabolism

Epigenesis: animal emerges gradually from the egg

Preformation: shows infant in sperm from 1694 engraving “homunculus”


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Fertilization in Mammals metabolism

Zona pellucida

Changes that occur in the egg after fertilization video


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Cleavage partitions the zygote into many smaller cells metabolism

Rapid cell division without growth produces cells called blastomeres.


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  • A vertical.blastocoel forms within the morula blastula

View the sea urchin development video on the CD


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Gastrulation vertical. rearranges the blastula to form a three-layered embryo with a primitive gut

Development after fertilization video


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(triploblastic) vertical.


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Organogenesis vertical. forms the organs from the three embryonic germ layers

Organogenesis in a frog embryo

View frog development video on CD


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Extraembryonic membranes in a chick or uterus

Identify the membranes that provide supporting functions

Protection from mechanical shock

Gas exchange

Disposal of uric acid

Nutrient source


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Extraembryonic membranes in a chick or uterus

How extraembryonic membranes support chick video


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The four or uterusextraembryonic membranes are the yolk sac, amnion, chorion, and allantois.

Cells of the yolk sac digest yolk providing nutrients to the embryo.

The amnion encloses the embryo in a fluid-filled amniotic sac which protects the embryo from drying out.

The chorion cushions the embryo against mechanical shocks.

The allantois functions as a disposal sac for uric acid.


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Chick embryo 54 hours old or uterus

Most major organs have formed

Formation of structures in embryo video



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  • Embryonic membranes membranes– homologous with those of shelled eggs.

    • Chorion: completely surrounds the embryo and other embryonic membranes.

    • Amnion: encloses the embryo in a fluid-filled amniotic cavity.

    • Yolk sac: found below the developing embryo.

      • Develops from the hypoblast.

      • Site of early formation of blood cells which later migrate to the embryo.

  • Allantois: develops as an outpocketing of the embryo’s rudimentary gut.

  • Incorporated into the umbilical cord, where it forms blood vessels.

  • Organogenesis begins with the formation of the neural tube, notochord,and somites.


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    Embryonic membranes – homologous with those of shelled eggs.

    Impact of Drugs and Chemicals on Fetal Development video


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    During labor, hormones stimulate the uterus to contract. The contractions push the baby out of the mother's body.


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    The Process of Birth contractions push the baby out of the mother's body.


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