Endocrine glands
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Endocrine Glands. Endocrine Glands. Hypothalamus. This organ is a part of the midbrain, and it is located below the thalamus. It has various functions including: regulating the ANS, influencing emotions, and feelings of hunger, thirst, and body temperature.

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Hypothalamus
Hypothalamus

This organ is a part of the midbrain, and

it is located below the thalamus.

It has various functions including:

regulating the ANS,

influencing emotions, and feelings of

hunger, thirst, and body temperature.



These releasing hormones are made in the hypothalamus and are released from the posterior pituitary.

EX: Antidiuretic hormone (vaspressin) and oxytocin.

Other hypothalamic hormones target the anterior pituitary.


The pituitary
The Pituitary are released from the posterior pituitary.

This organ is located in the brain, suspended from the hypothalamus by a stalk called the infundibulum and located in a recess called the stellaturnica (Turk’s saddle).

It is known as the master gland, and it is also known as the hypophysis.

It has two portions – anterior and posterior.


Anterior pituitary
Anterior Pituitary are released from the posterior pituitary.

This organ is located in the brain and is also

known as the adenohypophysis.

It is largely regulated by the “releasing” hormones from the hypothalamus.


Anterior pituitary1
Anterior Pituitary are released from the posterior pituitary.

Hormones released by the AP include:

1. TSH (thryoidstimulating hormone/thyrotropin)

  • ACTH (adrenocorticotropichormone)

    3. FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)


Anterior pituitary2
Anterior Pituitary are released from the posterior pituitary.

Hormones released by the AP include:

  • LH (lutenizing hormone)

  • GH (growth hormone)

    6. Prolactin (releasing hormone)


Anterior pituitary disorder example
Anterior Pituitary Disorder Example are released from the posterior pituitary.

Growth hormone normally promotes:

mitosis and the growth (elongation) of long bones

A homeostatic imbalance can have serious, life-changing effects.


The hormonal imbalance has various effects that are dependent on when the imbalance occurs.

In adulthood, too much (hypersecretion) GH results in acromegaly.

The mandible, feet, and hands enlarge.


In childhood, dependent on when the imbalance occurs.hypersecretion results in giantism – a large proportional individual.

In childhood, an insufficient amount (hyposecretion) results in pituitary dwarfism.


Posterior pituitary
Posterior Pituitary dependent on when the imbalance occurs.

This organ is located in the brain and is also known as the neurohypophysis.

It is a storage and a release site for oxytocin and antidiurectic hormone from the hypothalamus


Oxytocin dependent on when the imbalance occurs. and ADH are made in the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary.

Oxytocin - stimulates smooth muscle contraction of uterus & mammary glands.

ADH - stimulates water reabsorption in collecting ducts and vasoconstriction

People with diabetes insipidus lack ADH


Posterior pituitary disorder example
Posterior Pituitary Disorder Example dependent on when the imbalance occurs.

Hyposecretion of ADH will result

in diabetes insipidus which is

characterized by excessive thirst and

urination.


The pineal
The Pineal dependent on when the imbalance occurs.

This organ is located in the brain toward the base of the corpus callosum.


This organ has been described as a “lump of tissue in the brain that is light sensitive”.

It secretes melatonin to the blood and CSF during the night (dark).


Melatonin brain that is light sensitive”.

Influences the sleep/wake cycle and helps

set the body’s clock

Also influence reproductive organs – it is

thought to inhibit early puberty.

Melatonin is high when we are young and is reduced as we age.


Melatonin brain that is light sensitive”.

Because it influences the sleep/wake cycle, melatonin plays a role in jet lag.

Because it is secreted in the dark, melatonin plays a role in seasonal affective disorder (SAD) that is seen in the winter.

Depression often brings on the desire to sleep – made worse when taking melatonin.


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