The war of 1812
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The War of 1812. p . 211-215. Early War. After Napoleon’s army is defeated in Russia, British turn their efforts back to America. Early failures on battlefield for Americans: Detroit, Chicago: defeated by Native Tribes Naval failures: counterattacks by British. Any Success?.

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The War of 1812

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The war of 1812

The War of 1812

p. 211-215


Early war

Early War

  • After Napoleon’s army is defeated in Russia, British turn their efforts back to America.

  • Early failures on battlefield for Americans:

  • Detroit, Chicago: defeated by Native Tribes

  • Naval failures: counterattacks by British


Any success

Any Success?

  • Early success near Great Lakes

  • Took control of Lake Ontario, Lake Erie

  • Led to another invasion of Canada through Detroit

  • W. H. Harrison: led US to victory in a battle in which Tecumseh died

  • Led to a weakening of the Native Americans in the NW Territories


Andrew jackson

Andrew Jackson

  • Battle of Horseshoe Bend: 1814 near FL border

  • Jackson and his men slaughtered men, women, and children of the Creek Tribe

  • Creeks ceded most of their land to the U.S. and moved west

  • Jackson became a major general in the U.S. Army


Battles with british

Battles With British

  • August, 1814: British entered D.C. and set fire to several public buildings

  • White House included

  • Retaliation for U.S. burning of Canadian captial

  • Low point for U.S. in war

  • British moved toward Baltimore, but Americans held them off

  • Francis Scott Key: what did he do?


Battle of new orleans

Battle of New Orleans

  • Jackson vs British

  • January, 1815

  • Americans BIG win!

  • British: 700 dead, 1,400 wounded, 500 imprisoned

  • Americans: 8 dead, 13 wounded


The problem

The Problem:

  • THE PEACE TREATY HAD ALREADY BEEN SIGNED!

  • An unnecessary battle!

  • Andrew Jackson’s heroic status grows however…


New england opposition

New England Opposition

  • Federalists opposed war

  • Actually celebrated British success in some cases

  • Daniel Webster: led the Federalist opposition

  • Talk of secession again in 1814-1815


Hartford convention

Hartford Convention

  • December 1814, New England states

  • Those who favored secession were the majority

  • 7 amendments proposed to protect N.E. from the influence of the south and west

  • Hartford Convention seemed irrelevant and in some cases, treasonable

  • Death of the Federalists!


Treaty of ghent

Treaty of Ghent

  • JQ Adams, Henry Clay, Albert Gallatin

  • Americans gave up demand for British renunciation of impressment

  • Gave up the cession of Canada to the U.S.

  • British gave up their desire to have an Indian buffer state in the Northwest

  • Signed in December, 1814 (BEFORE Battle of New Orleans!!)


Rush bagot agreement

Rush-Bagot Agreement

  • Americans had right to trade freely with British

  • Mutual agreement in 1817 that provided for disarmament on the Great Lakes


Indians

Indians

  • Treaty of Ghent required U.S. to restore the tribes the land seized by Americans

  • Never enforced

  • A major blow for Native Americans to retain territory

  • Tecumseh dead, British gone

  • Native Americans less able to defend their land than ever


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