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Chapter 3. Telecommunication Architectures and Standard. Agenda. Network architectures & standards Standard-making organizations Pros and cons of standards Open System Interconnection Model (OSI) TCP/IP Manufacturer architecture Pros and cons of architecture. Network Architectures.

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Chapter 3 l.jpg

Chapter 3

Telecommunication Architectures and Standard


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Agenda

  • Network architectures & standards

  • Standard-making organizations

  • Pros and cons of standards

  • Open System Interconnection Model (OSI)

  • TCP/IP

  • Manufacturer architecture

  • Pros and cons of architecture


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Network Architectures

  • Design principles for

    • Functions

    • Data format

    • Procedures

  • Describe “what”


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Communication Standards

  • Rules for compatibility

  • Specify “how”


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Needs for Architectures and Standards

  • Complex communication systems

  • Maintenance and future growth

  • Connectivity between network devices

  • Distributed processing systems

  • Diagnostic and performance management


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Standards-Making Organizations

  • International Telecommunications Union-Telecommunication Standardization Section (ITU-T)

  • International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

  • American National Standard Institute (ANSI)

  • Electrical Industries Association (EIA)

  • National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

  • Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)


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Standards

  • V.

    • Connection of digital equipment to telephone analog line

  • X.

    • Connection of digital equipment to telephone digital line

    • X.400

      • Allow communication between incompatible electronic mail systems

    • X.500

      • Create and maintain a directory of e-mail users and their network addresses


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Pros and Cons of Standards

  • Pros

    • Compatibility between vendors

    • Fewer products

  • Cons

    • Slow processing

    • Obsolescence

    • Freezing technology

    • Discouraging innovation


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Open System Interconnection Model

  • International Organization for Standardization

  • Interconnection of Dissimilar Network

  • Seven Layers

    • Application

    • Presentation

    • Session Control

    • Transport Control

    • Network Control

    • Data Link Control

    • Physical Link Control


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Application Layer

  • Determine data to be send at originating end

  • Process data at receiving end


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Presentation Layer

  • Change data format

  • Compression/expansion

  • Encryption/decryption


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Session Control Layer

  • Communication rules

  • Rate of transmission

  • Accounting functions


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Transport Control Layer

  • Identify receiving address

  • Calculate and check checksum of entire message


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Network Control Layer

  • Route message

  • Dissemble and assemble data (transmission unit)

  • Accounting functions


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Data Link Control Unit

  • Determine line usage

  • Establish link between two ends

  • Detect and correct transmission error

  • Add header and trailer

  • Divide data unit for transmission


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Physical Link Control Layer

  • Hardware specification

  • Electrical characteristics


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TCP/IP Protocol

  • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

  • Advanced Research Project Agency

  • ARPANET


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TCP/IP Structure

  • Application layer

    • User application

  • Transport layer (TCP protocol)

    • Communication, error-checking procedure

  • Internet layer (IP protocol)

    • Routing

  • Network access layer

    • Connection

  • Physical

    • Physical & electrical interface


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Manufacturers’ Architecture

  • Objectives

    • Base for future products

    • Control customers

  • Types

    • IBM: Systems Network Architecture (SNA)

    • Digital Equipment Corporation: Digital Network Architecture (DNA)


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Pros and Cons of Layered Architectures

  • Pros

    • Modularize structure for simplify maintenance

    • Specify interfaces for easy change & future growth

  • Cons

    • Complex Rules

    • Cost of sophisticated intelligence

    • Complex software


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Points to Remember

  • Network architectures & standards

  • Standard-making organizations

  • Pros and cons of standards

  • Open System Interconnection Model (OSI)

  • TCP/IP

  • Manufacturer architecture

  • Pros and cons of architecture


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Discussion

  • What are your thoughts on selecting network equipment for an organization?


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