Problems at school and criminality development
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Ulf Engqvist PhD, Senior Lecturer Mid Sweden University, Dept. of Social Work Östersund [email protected] Problems at school and criminality development. The two studies. A Follow up study of Former CAP-patients. Pupils at a special approved home (reform school).

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Problems at school and criminality development

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Ulf Engqvist

PhD, Senior Lecturer

Mid Sweden University,

Dept. of Social Work


[email protected]

Problems at school and criminality development

The two studies

A Follow up study of Former CAP-patients

Pupils at a special approved home (reform school)

A project that lasted two years conducted in in the midst of Sweden

82 pupils were investigated at admission according to an extended, refined routine including somatic, psychiatric, psychological, educational and social assessment

  • A project that lasted 12 years conducted in Jämtland county, Sweden

  • A longitudinal study descriptive in nature where 1,400 Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) patients were followed for 12 to 33 years

1,400 former CAP-patients followed up for 12-33 years

Mortality and


38 (2,7%)

(19 suicides)

Convicted of


530 (37,9%)


and / or

affective psychoses

62 (4,4%)

General (adult) psychiatric care: 531 (37,9%)

82 pupils at the special reform school

Family situation:

80% had parents who were divorced

83% came from families with low socioeconomic status

A quarter stated that there was criminality in the family

One third stated that there was abuse among family members

Teacher assessment of knowledge in Swedish, English and Mathematics and standardized reading tests

Routine physical health assessment

The Gordon Diagnostic System

(Record Form Model III)

Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD) and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)

Conners-Wells’ Adolescent Self-Report Scales (CASS-S)

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) and Raven's Progressive Matrices

Psychiatric interview

(DICA -R-A )

based on DSM

Convicted of


530 (37,9%)

Every second male (55 %) and every fifth female (22% ) former CAP-patient were convicted of offenses

CAP-patients who had problems at school

  • There were more male than female (p ≤ 0.001)

  • More had inpatient care at CAP (p ≤ 0.001)

  • More had behavioural disorder or mental retardation and developmental problems as reason for admittance to CAP (p ≤ 0.001)

  • More died a premature death (p ≤ 0.001) and

  • More had General (adult) psychiatric care (≤ 0.01)

Problems at school and criminality among the 82 pupils in the special reform school

Problems at school


Any form of crime was listed for 81%.

77% of the boys and 61% of the girls were registered for some form of crime:

Crime directed against persons, such as assault, robbery, or both, 53%.

Crime directed against objects, such as shoplifting, theft, vandalism, driving without a license was listed for 73%

Crimes against both persons and objects were noted for 45%

  • Three quarters was judged to be low achievers in school

  • 93% were observed for truancy

  • Nearly half (40%) had problems with learning and 46% had reading and writing difficulties

  • On average they performed almost three grade levels below the grade they belonged


  • From the two studies referred it can be stated that relationship problems, problems at school, behaviour problems as well as problems at school, must be paid attention to and that all authorities working with children, adolescents and their families and network must work focused and together around these problems to prevent criminality.

Thank you for your attention

[email protected]

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