Plant design for electronics recycling
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Plant Design for Electronics Recycling. Rafael Reveles Director of Engineering Noranda Recycling Inc. ISRI’s 2006 Convention and Exposition April 2 nd - 6 th , 2006. Mandalay Bay Resort & Casino. Noranda Recycling Inc. . 4 sites in US, 1 in Canada

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Plant Design for Electronics Recycling

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Plant design for electronics recycling

Plant Design for Electronics Recycling

Rafael Reveles

Director of Engineering

Noranda Recycling Inc.

ISRI’s 2006 Convention and Exposition

April 2nd - 6th, 2006

Mandalay Bay Resort & Casino


Noranda recycling inc

Noranda Recycling Inc.

  • 4 sites in US, 1 in Canada

  • Brampton, Roseville and Lavergne operations focus on end-of-life electronics recycling.

  • Wholly owned subsidiary of Falconbridge - 48 operations, 18 countries

  • One of the world’s largest producers of zinc and nickel and a significant producer of copper, primary and fabricated aluminum, lead, silver, gold, cobalt and sulphuric acid.


Plant design for electronics recycling

U.S. Recycling Plants

Noranda Recycling, San Jose CA

Noranda Recycling, E. Providence RI

Noranda Recycling, Roseville CA

Noranda Recycling LaVergne, TN


Key elements of plant design

Key Elements of Plant Design

  • Facility selection

  • Tenant improvements

  • Layout

  • Machinery


Facility selection

Facility Selection

  • Transportation needs

  • Local regulations

  • Equipment needs

  • Output option proximity


Transportation needs

Transportation needs

  • Rail spur can reduce freight costs by 25%. Especially helpful when shipping shredded material to smelters.

  • Alternatively, local rail yards usually have trans-loading service providers.

  • Proximity to interstate and airports.

  • Survey freight providers.

  • Evaluate shipping container options.


Output vendors

Output vendors

  • Steel and Aluminum recycler proximity

  • Smelters- North America or Europe

  • Ports

  • Hazardous waste

  • Useful tool- Develop a matrix containing volumes vs. proximity


Regulatory considerations

Regulatory considerations

  • E-scrap managed as waste? (California – Universal Waste)

  • Example: In CA, subject to DTSC inspections, special container requirements, inventory aging requirements, facility signage, etc..

  • Output destination management can be affected- Excluded Recyclable Materials.

  • Zoning

  • Air permitting- dust collector discharge

  • Storm water permitting


Equipment needs

Equipment needs

  • Power- 3000 amp service (upgraded transformer a significant expense)

  • Foundation at least 6”

  • Ceiling height 28 to 32 feet

  • Grade level roll up doors

  • Fire pump, ESFR sprinklers

  • Roof loading- ceiling column spacing


Tennant improvements

Tennant Improvements

  • HVAC

  • Restrooms

  • Entrance / security

  • Footings

  • Lighting

  • Racking

  • Truck docks

  • Sprinkler

  • Permits


Plant design for electronics recycling

HVAC

  • Is it necessary?

  • Insulated ceilings

  • Roof mount vs. floor level units

  • Make up air balanced to dust collection

  • Cold climates- sprinkler pipe freeze issue, ceiling fans, make up air must be heated


Restrooms and plumbing

Restrooms and Plumbing

  • Extra restroom capacity

  • Showers

  • Circulation pumps can be extra maintenance


Security

Security

  • Most customers require video surveillance – video server

  • Building alarm monitoring company (includes fire panel)

  • Entrance lobby – guard or bell

  • Card lock system- isolate business office

  • Trucker access

  • Perimeter security fence - bins


Equipment footings

Equipment footings

  • Soil sample with Civil P. E. analysis and permit if required

  • Excavation equipment access

  • Concrete cure time

  • Footings can be costly and deeper depending on soil conditions

  • Ensure final equipment layout prior to construction


Lighting

Lighting

  • Bay lighting

  • Ensure OSHA lighting standard

  • Add task lighting over production area


Warehouse racking

Warehouse Racking

  • Rack usage depends on business model, turn around time, and available floor space

  • Wire guide warehouse vs. conventional

  • Additional sprinklers may be necessary

  • Installation usually requires permitting due to seismic concerns

  • Protect the racks with bollards


Wire guide warehouse

Wire Guide Warehouse


Truck docks

Truck docks

  • Quantity?

  • Expensive to add after building construction (>25K to upgrade)

  • Hydraulic dock plates speed up unloading and provide a smooth forklift path into the truck

  • Ergonomically friendly vs. manual dock


Truck docks1

Truck Docks


Fire sprinklers

Fire Sprinklers

  • Absolutely a must with any E-Scrap plant

  • Early Suppression Fast Response preferred by insurers such as FM Global

  • Machinery usually requires additional fire suppression by local FD

  • Maintenance- flow, pressure, and alarm notification testing


Building permits

Building Permits

  • Local building department turn around time should be factored into timeline

  • A consultant can speed up the process

  • Permits commonly required for- HVAC, sprinklers, electrical, footings, racking, machinery

  • Permit fees vary and can sometimes include an expedited service fee


Layout

Layout

  • Receiving

  • Shipping

  • Warehouse

  • Work Cells

  • Automated solutions

  • Lift trucks

  • EH&S


Layout example

Layout Example


Receiving

Receiving

  • Receiving is typically a bottleneck when planning site capacities

  • Reduced docks require delivery appointments

  • Scales should be in ground and greater than 48”

  • Forklift mounted scales can increase shipment receiving efficiency

  • Buffer considerations- minimize the amount of travel for shipping units


Receiving1

Receiving


Shipping

Shipping

  • Largely dependant on business model – retail sales?

  • FEDEX or UPS terminal

  • Shrink wrap machines


Warehouse

Warehouse

  • Bin size – pallet location or small bins

  • Keep most popular stock items at floor level or in consolidated high demand area


Work cells

Work Cells

  • 2 types – de-package and disassembly

  • Determine your sort boxes- boards, steel, cardboard, shred, plastic, wire.

  • Adjustable height tables and benches reduce injury

  • Air tools speed up productivity

  • Scissor lift tables reduce lifting injuries

  • Tool balancers reduce injury and increase speed


Work cell layout

Work cell layout


Work cells1

Work Cells


Cell sorting

Cell Sorting


Automation

Automation

  • Sort line

  • Wireless network


Lift trucks

Lift Trucks

  • Electric lifts reduce fire risk and do not create fumes

  • Riding pallet jacks are efficient at receiving and general pallet movement

  • Sit down units typically have 3000 pound lift capacities

  • Minimize manual jack use- slow and causes injury

  • Wire guide lifts and order pickers are expensive, but necessary for a large warehouse configuration


Plant design for electronics recycling

EH&S

  • Floor conditioning- Epoxy

  • Spill containment

  • Flammable cabinet

  • Adequate storage for ink, toner, and batteries

  • Make sure you facility has a HMMP


Processing machinery

Processing Machinery

  • General Theory

  • Shredding options

  • Separation Technologies

  • Dust collection

  • Output options

  • New Horizons


Machinery general theory

Machinery general theory

  • Shredding reduces scrap in size and liberates metals into separable particles

  • Ferrous and Aluminum streams commonly extracted

  • All other streams will be copper bearing and go to a smelter or broker

  • Manual complete disassembly yields a higher recovery, but is cost prohibitive in the US


Shredding options

Shredding options

  • Primary size reduction requires a shear type shredder

  • 4 shaft- can be in series or stand alone

  • 2 shaft- delivers large pieces and requires secondary size reduction

  • Granulators provide a finishing step and produce uniform particle size


Size reduction

Size Reduction


Separation steps

Separation steps

  • Screen off the fines (<8mm) with a shaker or a trommel

  • Remove ferrous with a overband or drum magnet

  • Remove aluminum with an eddy current


Plant design for electronics recycling

500HP

8 mm Screen

Steel

Roseville Metals Separation Plant

200 HP

400 HP

Shear Shredder (4")

Shear Shredder (2")

Granulator (1”)

Eddy Current

Belt Magnet

Aluminum

Copper Family

Fines

Copper Family

Mixed Plastics


E scrap processing line

E-scrap Processing Line


Dust collection

Dust collection

  • Absolutely necessary when shredding

  • Must be effective at maintaining safe ambient air for staff- validate with periodic air monitoring

  • A cyclone-baghouse combination is ideal

  • Carry out due diligence and analyze the dust and loading conditions to evaluate explosion risk

  • Floor sweeper


Dust collection1

Dust Collection


Output options

Output options

  • Before selecting equipment, survey your local commodity market and know what their quality requirements are.

  • Steel vendors do not want copper - requires more size reduction to achieve

  • Aluminum vendors may not want circuit board contamination- a second eddy current may be needed


Plant design for electronics recycling

Gantt Chart


New horizons

New Horizons

  • Plastics separation- sink float, visual detection

  • Inductive separators

  • Color sorting machines

  • Shredding- VFDs vs. hydraulics


End of presentation

End Of Presentation


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