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Using Country Systems to Manage Climate Change Finance. Considerations in mobilizing private for global climate finance. 2013.12.3. Kim, Sungwoo. Regional Head of Climate Change & Sustainability, KPMG Asia Pacific.

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Using Country Systems to ManageClimate Change Finance

Considerations in mobilizing private for global climate finance

2013.12.3

Kim,Sungwoo

Regional Head of Climate Change & Sustainability,

KPMG Asia Pacific

various area for cooperation with the private sector in the global climate landscape
Various area for cooperation with the private sector in the global climate landscape

Through long-standing efforts to integrate the private sector into the global climate finance architecture, a wide variety of private partners and possible areas for cooperation have been identified.

Narrow coverage

Lack of transparency

Public sector responsibilities

Insufficient knowledge sharing

Lessons learned from existing climate funds

  • Available only to direct mitigation projects and its sponsors

 Need to expand

  • Uneven supportlevel due to case by case approach

 Need to enhance MRV system

  • Possible of harming public sector’s not-for-profit public service role in its cooperation with private entities

 Need to enhance risk sharing function

  • Failure in knowledge sharing with private investors

 Knowledge sharing through co-work

Cooperation scheme by investors

Direct investors

Indirect investors

Others

Equity Investor

Debt Investor

Fund Investor

Bond Investor

Carbon Investor

Tech. Provider

  • Carbon credit purchase
  • Ground price guarantee
  • PPP (BOT)Enhancing sovereign guarantee
  • Equity Investment
  • Subordinated loan
  • Credit line support
  • PPP - Investment in Private Equity
  • Green Bond - 1st-loss tranche
  • Green export insurance/guarantee

examples

KfW

Global Climate Partnership Fund

AFDInteract Climate Change Fund

EIBGlobal EE and Re Energy Fund

WBGreen Bond

ADB Future Carbon Fund

N.A.

four cooperative schemes employed by existing climate funds
Four cooperative schemes employed by existing climate funds

Existing climate funds have been utilizing diverse ways of incorporating the private sector throughout the financing cycle, from raising capital to the disbursement of the resources.

Investment in relevant infrastructure

Co-investment

Bonds

Funds

Capital raising

Disbursement

  • Modality of involvement- Fund of Funds (bottom-up approach)
  • Benefits- Utilizing the private sector’s expertise and experiences in market/technology risk management
  • Modality of involvement- Subordinated loans
  • Benefits- Enhancing repayment capability of projects and building capacity of involved (local) private banks

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  • Modality of involvement- Bond issuance / credit enhancement to bond issuers (top-down approach)
  • Benefits- Ease of attracting private capital through guarantee
  • Modality of involvement- Separate investment
  • Benefits- Creating an enabling environment and avoiding possible crowding out effect
overview of the existing schemes capital raising through fund
Overview of the existing schemes – capital raising through fund

The public’s intervention through a Fund-of-Funds structure aims to expand the boundary of eligible climate projects to PEFs by sharing risks of other private investors

Example - GEEREF

Cooperation progress

Public’s acts required

Initiation

  • GEEREF is sponsored by the European Union, Germany and Norway and is advised by the European Investment Bank Group
  • Structured as a Fund-of-Funds, GEEREF invests in private equity funds that specialize in providing equity finance to small and medium-sized project developers and enterprises (SMEs)
  • These SMEs should focus on renewable energy and energy efficiency projects and/or technologies
  • The target funding size for GEEREF is €200-250 million and as of March 2013, GEEREF has secured a total €112 million.
  • Portfolio: Renewable Energy Asia Fund (€12.5mn), Evolution One Fund (€10mn), DI Frontier Market Energy and Carbon Fund (€10mn), Armstrong South East Asia Clean Energy Fund (€10mn), etc.
  • raising capital in a form of fund-of-funds
  • Identifying suitable PEFs managed by the private

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Risk sharing

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  • acquiring the 2nd priority stock of the invested PEF (similar to subordinated tranche)

Profitability enhancement

  • enhancing other private investors’ profitability through unequal dividends (through “late charge”)

Operation

  • Utilizing private GP’s expertise and experiences in risk management

 This approach has advantages in project identification and support for small-to-medium size projects by utilizing relevant expertise of the private sector. Methods to attract and leverage more private capital for scaling up need to be developed.

overview of the existing schemes capital raise through bond
Overview of the existing schemes – capital raise through bond

Bonds are one of the most efficient instruments for mobilizing large capital from the market and the preference for bonds is growing by new international financial regulations such as Basel III. Small-to-medium business, however, needs to be integrated into this scheme.

Example – Green bond

Cooperation progress

Public’s acts required

Initiation

  • Designing bonds in several tranches with appropriate yield rates, maturity and denominated currencies
  • Green bond was issued by the World Bank in context of "Strategic Framework for Development and Climate Change“ aiming to help stimulate and coordinate public and private sector activity to combat climate change
  • Since 2008, the World Bank has issued USD 4 blnin Green Bonds through 59 transactions and 17 currencies
  • The bonds have been issued with AAA credit rate but a wide range of yield rate from 0.5~8.75%
  • Capital raised from the bonds has been utilized in supporting mitigation and adaptation activities in its 19 member states.
  • Investors: institutional investors including AP2 – Second Swedish National Pension, Blackrock, California State Treasurer’s Office and Nikko Asset Management

Securing project pipeline to be financed is key for successful operation of the green bonds

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Risk sharing

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  • Utilizing high credit rates of the public
  • acquiring 1st-loss tranche

Profitability enhancement

  • Issuing multiple tranches with different yield rate

Operation

  • Securing project pipeline to be financed

 Bond is an efficient instrument for mobilizing private capital but its applicability is very limited only to high credit rated entities. A way how to enlarge its applicability to small-to-medium companies needs to be examined.

overview of the existing schemes disbursement through co investment
Overview of the existing schemes – disbursement through co-investment

Syndication between public funds and local institutions in debt financing of climate projects is effective in enhancing access to local financial markets necessary for micro financing but the scheme is still in its infancy

Example – Eurus wind project

Cooperation progress

Public’s acts required

Initiation

  • The project is located in Oaxaca, Mexico developed by Acciona of Spain.
  • Eurus is the largest operating wind farm in Latin America and construction was divided into 3 phases.
  • 1st phase(67.5MW): financed by MDBs with no private’s involvement
  • 2nd phase (250.5MW): financed a total of USD 375 mn by ten financial institutions consisting of 8 MDBs and 2 private entities (BBVA and Banco Spirito Santo)*The public held subordinated position to help mitigate off-taker credit risk and other operational risks
  • 3rd phase (396MW): financed by private (USD 536 mn)

 Through the participation, local banks could build risk management capacity in wind farm development allowing active engagement in the subsequent project

  • Identifying eligible projects and appropriate co-investment partners (local financial institutions)

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Risk sharing

  • Holding subordinated tranche

Profitability enhancement

  • Providing favorable interest rate

Operation

  • Working with local banks to build their risk management capacity

 Capacity building of local financial institutions is crucial for strengthening accessibility to domestic capital markets, especially for micro-financing, in developing countries. This scheme needs to be further disseminated

overview of the existing schemes disbursement through investing in relevant infrastructure
Overview of the existing schemes – disbursement through investing in relevant infrastructure

Lack of relevant infrastructure acts as a significant bottleneck of climate change mitigation and adaptation activities more than market immaturity in many developing countries.

Example – Rajastan transmission project

Cooperation progress

Public’s acts required

Initiation

  • Transmission of renewable energy faces several challenges including cost recovery and reliability issues
  • Government of Rajasthan targeted nearly 8,000 MW of solar photovoltaic, concentrated solar power and wind projects by 2018. Financing for this target will mainly come from private sources.
  • The Rajasthan Renewable Energy Transmission Investment Program formed a part of the overall scheme for transmission development in Rajasthan
  • ADB has agreed to lend $300 million from its ordinary capital resources and $200 million cofinancing from the ADB Clean Technology Fund.

 The public supported the private‘s investment indirectly by providing necessary infrastructure and subsequently reducing project costs

  • Identifying necessary social infrastructure for climate change mitigation and adaptation activities

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Risk sharing

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  • providing related infrastructure which is necessary for stable operation of projects funded by the private

Profitability enhancement

  • Establishing related infrastructure as a separate project which results in cost saving to private investors

Operation

  • Closely collaborating with local governments as most of these projects are categorized as ‘social overhead capital’

 Lack of relevant infrastructure of developing countries hinders the private’s participation in the market. Securing adequate infrastructure is a precondition of attracting private capital

key considerations in mobilizing private for global climate finance
Key considerations in mobilizing private for global climate finance

Climate-friendly technologies are still expensive. Thus, financial support from the public is inevitable but it should be provided in a sustainable manner

Public-driven approach is generally suitable for large-scale programs/projects resulting significant impacts to the market. This approach, however, is not effective to be duplicated by private,

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To fully leverage private finance, the public should utilize the private’s expertise and their languages

The market is the answer

  • Provided the public gives clear signal, the market will leverage the private capital by itself
  • The market has proven its ability to evolve itself to attract more players and secure greater liquidity in many other industries
  • Finding business opportunities and maximizing benefits from them is the private’s distinct expertise. Who can identify and manage risks of the market most effectively and efficiently is also those who lives in there, the private
  • Timing is a virtue for the private sector, which is often ignored by the public. To attract the private, the sector needs to communicate in terms familiar to the private sector.
  • Financial supports from the public should be sustainable though adopting loss offset schemes which can generate revenue to offset losses from the support
  • “Efficiency” in leveraging private capital is also an important criterion in selecting appropriate schemes
  • “Green bond” is a applicable scheme only to high credit rated entities. This limitation of applicability hinders dissemination of the scheme and consequently leverage of private resources.
quick ideas for innovative schemes to leverage the private finance bond guarantee program
Quick ideas for innovative schemes to leverage the private finance – Bond guarantee program

The bond guarantee program can facilitate micro-financing for small scale projects and induce active participation of private parties by providing credit enhancement to bond issuers

Program overview at glance

Key features

Profit generating scheme with a leverage rate of 15~20 times

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Private-driven approach

Utilizing the market mechanism

Business model tailored for small-to medium size companies

Public

Bond Guarantee Program

(IFI)

  • The bond guarantee program can generate revenue through guarantee fee charged to bond issuers and offset losses of performance ‘default’ events
  • The expected leverage ratio of ‘Project Bond initiative’ in EU is 20 times and the program will have a similar degree of leverage ratio
  • Transaction is taken place in the market and diverse derives (forward rate, Asset/liability swap, IRS, CRS, etc) can be involved gradually.
  • Roles of the public in the program is limited to providing guarantees to bond issuers and the transaction is executed by private parties
  • The program is applicable to small-to-medium size companies through establishing an asset pool consisting of small projects

Credit enhancement

Fee payment

(offsetting losses)

PJT

#1

PJT

#2

PJT

#3

Private

Securitization of assets*

Tranche A

(pension funds)

Tranche B

(insurance com.)

Tranche C

(PEFs)

Bond issuance with multiple tranches

Bond investment

Higher yield with lower priority

* Borrowing the “covered bond” concept

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Quick ideas for innovative schemes to leverage the private finance – Acquisition program for small scale renewable projects

This program will give a clear market signal by acquiring small renewable projects after its commissioning and performance verification. The signal will induce participation of diverse private players, which will turn the program into private-driven

Key features

Program overview at glance

Clear signal to the market

Market mechanism utilization

2

1

<introduction stage>

<Maturity stage>

The Private

(mainly developer or EPC company)

Identification

Early operation

Early operation

operation

Financing

Financing

EPC

operation

Identification

EPC

  • The program is to acquire small renewable projects after commissioning and performance verification.
  • The program will give a clear signal to private parties involved and induce participation of other private financiers
  • The clear signal will enable the program to fully utilize the market mechanism and diverse investors will participate into the market accordingly through various derives and transactions
  • The participation of diverse private parties will turn the program into private-driven

The Private

(bridging finance)

The Private

(mainly developer or EPC company)

2nd transaction

(asset transfer)

3rd transaction

1st transaction

The Public

Transaction(asset transfer)

The Private

(asset M&A)

The Public

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Kim, Sungwoo

Regional Head of Climate Change & Sustainability,

KPMG Asia Pacific

[email protected]

82-2-2112-3200

DISCLAIMER

This presentation has been prepared exclusively for internal use of the intended recipient and does not carry any right of publication or disclosure to any other party. This presentation is incomplete without reference to and should be viewed solely in conjunction with the oral briefing provided by Samjong KPMG Accounting Corp (“KPMG”). Neither this presentation nor its content may be used for any other purpose without prior written consent of KPMG.

The information in this presentation is based upon publicly available information and reflects prevailing conditions and our views as of this date, all of which are accordingly subject to change. In preparing this presentation, we have relied upon and assumed, without independent verification, the accuracy and completeness of any information available from public sources.

The information contained herein is of a general nature and is not intended to address the circumstances of any particular individual or entity. Although we endeavor to provide accurate and timely information, there can be no guarantee that such information is accurate as of the date it is received or that it will continue to be accurate in the future. No one should act on such information without appropriate professional advice after a thorough examination of the particular situation.

Whilst the information presented and views expressed in this presentation and the oral briefing have been prepared in good faith, KPMG accepts no responsibility or liability to any party in connection with such information or views.

This presentation is made by KPMG, a Korean member firm of the KPMG network of independent firms affiliated with KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative, and is in all respects subject to the negotiation, agreement, and signing of a specific engagement letter or contract. KPMG International provides no client services. No member firm has any authority to obligate or bind KPMG International or any other member firm vis-à-vis third parties, nor does KPMG International have any such authority to obligate or bind any member firm.

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