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# C H A P T E R 2 Kinematics in One Dimension - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

C H A P T E R   2 Kinematics in One Dimension. Mechanics. The study of Physics begins with mechanics. Mechanics. The study of Physics begins with mechanics. Mechanics is the branch of physics that focuses on the motion of objects and the forces that cause the motion to change. .

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C H A P T E R   2Kinematics in One Dimension

The study of Physics begins with mechanics.

The study of Physics begins with mechanics.

Mechanics is the branch of physics that focuses on the motion of objects and the forces that cause the motion to change.

The study of Physics begins with mechanics.

Mechanics is the branch of physics that focuses on the motion of objects and the forces that cause the motion to change.

There are two parts to mechanics: Kinematics and Dynamics.

The study of Physics begins with mechanics.

Mechanics is the branch of physics that focuses on the motion of objects and the forces that cause the motion to change.

There are two parts to mechanics: Kinematics and Dynamics.

Kinematics deals with the concepts that are needed to describe motion, without any reference to forces. Chapter 2: Kinematics in one dimension Chapter 3: Kinematics in two dimensions

The study of Physics begins with mechanics.

Mechanics is the branch of physics that focuses on the motion of objects and the forces that cause the motion to change.

There are two parts to mechanics: Kinematics and Dynamics.

Kinematics deals with the concepts that are needed to describe motion, without any reference to forces. Chapter 2: Kinematics in one dimension Chapter 3: Kinematics in two dimensions

Dynamics deals with the effect that forces have on motion. Chapter 4: Dynamics

Starting from origin, O a person walks 90-m east, then turns around and walks 40-m west.

Starting from origin, O a person walks 90-m east, then turns around and walks 40-m west.

Q: What is the total walked distance?

Starting from origin, O a person walks 90-m east, then turns around and walks 40-m west.

Q: What is the total walked distance? A: 130-m

Starting from origin, O a person walks 90-m east, then turns around and walks 40-m west.

Q: What is the total walked distance? A: 130-m

Q: What is the displacement?

Starting from origin, O a person walks 90-m east, then turns around and walks 40-m west.

Q: What is the total walked distance? A: 130-m

Q: What is the displacement? A: 50-m, due east.

The displacement Äx is a vector that points from the initial position to the final position. SI Unit of Displacement: meter (m)

Figure 2-2One-Dimensional Coordinates

• Average Speed

• Average Velocity

• Instantaneous Velocity

• Instantaneous Speed

Units for speed: m/s, MPH, kmPH.

Units for velocity: m/s, MPH, kmPH.

Figure 2-6Constant Velocity on an x-Versus-t Graph

Example 2-2Sprint Training

Figure 2-4Motion Along the X Axis Represented with an x-Versus-t Graph

Figure 2-5aAverage Velocity on an x-Versus-t Graph

Figure 2-5bAverage Velocity on an x-Versus-t Graph

The instantaneous velocityv indicates how fast an object moves and the direction of the motion at each instant of time.

The magnitude of the instantaneous velocity is called the instantaneous speed, and it is the number (with units) indicated by the speedometer.

Figure 2-7Instantaneous Velocity

Figure 2-8Graphical Interpretation of Average and Instantaneous Velocity

Units: m/s2, cm/s2

Table 2-3Typical Accelerations (m/s2)

Figure 2-9v-Versus-t Plots for Motion with Constant Acceleration

Example 2-3An Accelerating Train

Acceleration at a particular instant is called instantaneous acceleration.

Figure 2-10Graphical Interpretation of Average and Instantaneous Acceleration

An object speeds up when the acceleration and velocity vectors point in the same direction.

An object speeds up when the acceleration and velocity vectors point in the same direction.

Whenever the acceleration and velocity vectors have opposite directions, the object slows down and is said to be “decelerating.”

Figure 2-11Cars Accelerating or Decelerating

An object speeds up when the acceleration and velocity vectors point in the same direction.

Whenever the acceleration and velocity vectors have opposite directions, the object slows down and is said to be “decelerating.”

Example 4: A drag racer crosses the finish line, and the driver deploys a parachute and applies the brakes to slow down. The driver begins slowing down when t0 = 9.0 s and the car's velocity is v0 = +28 m/s. When t = 12.0 s, the velocity has been reduced to v = +13 m/s. What is the average acceleration of the dragster?

Figure 2-13aThe Average Velocity

Figure 2-14Velocity Versus Time for the Boat in Example 2-5