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HOPE, OPTIMISM, AND RESILIENCY. ?. SUCH AN INTEREST IN HOPE. WHY. FROM DEBIT OR DISEASE MODEL. TO POSITIVE CONCEPTS. —”A NATURAL FOR NURSES”. NURSING PRACTICE AND RESEARCH: 20 + YEARS OF HOPE. Buehler (1975) Dufault (1981) Hope in elderly cancer patients Rideout & Montemuro (1986).

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HOPE, OPTIMISM, AND RESILIENCY


?

SUCH AN INTEREST IN HOPE

WHY


FROM DEBIT OR DISEASE MODEL

TO POSITIVE CONCEPTS

—”A NATURAL FOR NURSES”


NURSING PRACTICE AND RESEARCH: 20 + YEARS OF HOPE

Buehler (1975)

Dufault (1981) Hope in elderly cancer patients

Rideout & Montemuro (1986)


NURSING PRACTICE AND RESEARCH: 20 + YEARS OF HOPE

Farran & McCann (1989)Longitudinal analysis of hope in community–based older adults

Farran & Popovich (1990) Hope: A relevant concept for geriatric psychiatry

Herth (1990) Level of hope, copying styles, settingto grief resolution in elderly widow(er)s


NURSING PRACTICE AND RESEARCH: 20 + YEARS OF HOPE

Fehring et al. (1990)Spiritual well-being, religiosity, hope, depression in elderly people coping with cancer

Raleigh (1992) Sources of hope in chronic illness

El–Gamel (1993)


NURSING PRACTICE AND RESEARCH: 20 + YEARS OF HOPE

Mc Gill & Paul (1993) Functional status and hope in elderly people with and without cancer

Byrne et al. (1994)

Herth (1995) Engendering hope in the chronically and terminally ill


NURSING PRACTICE AND RESEARCH: 20 + YEARS OF HOPE

Fowler (1995) Hope and a health promoting lifestyle in persons with Parkinson’s disease

Beckerman & Northrop (1996)Hope, chronic illness, and the elderly

Zorn (1997) Factors contributing to hope among noninstitutionalized elderly


NURSING PRACTICE AND RESEARCH: 20 + YEARS OF HOPE

Benzein & Saveman (1998)

Brandt (1998)

Roberts et al. (1999) Fostering hope in the elderly congestive heart failure patient


NURSING PRACTICE AND RESEARCH: 20 + YEARS OF HOPE

Cutliffe (2001) Inspiring hope in cognitively impaired older adults

Duggleby (2001)Hope at the end of life

Bays (2001) Older adults description of hope after a stroke


RESEARCH EMPHASIZING IS OF PARTICULAR IMPORTANCE TO AGING AND NURSING SCIENCE

HOPE, OPTIMISM AND RESILIENCE


HOPE

A multidimensional dynamic life force characterized by a confident, yet uncertain, expectation of achieving good, which to the hoping person, is realistically possible and personally significant.(Dufault, 1981)

Generalized Hope

Particularized Hope


OPTIMISM

A stable cognitive set reflecting general rather than specific outcome expectancies, a general trait or outlook that includes a person’s overall attitude and approachtoward self and world( Myers; Seligman)

A disposition that expects the best possible or emphasizes primarily the positive aspects of a situation(Farran at al, 1995)


OPTIMISM

The belief that things will turn out well or that there are good aspects of every situation (sanguine)

The belief that good is the dominant force in the universe

Similarity with Hope

Differences with Hope


RESILIENCE

Social and psychological competence characterized by equanimity, perseverance, meaningfulness, existential aloneness, and self–reliance(Wagnild and Young, 1993)

The capacity of individuals to cope successfully with significant change, adversity or risk( Stewart and colleagues, 1997)


RESILIENCE

A transformational process that results from the connections made with others to move the person through and beyond the stress “into a new and more comprehensive personal and relational integration”(Jordon, 1992)

An effect of hope that energizes individuals to move forward in spite of difficulties(Roset, 1999)


NURSES AND OTHER CAREGIVERS AS SOURCES AND THREATS TO

HOPE AND HOPING PROCESSES


POLICY CHANGES TO SUPPORT RESEARCH/PRACTICE WITH THIS EMPHASIS


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